Whether formal or informal, communication is a process that involves a series of steps to convey information to create a shared understanding.

Module 4 Assignments
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Whether formal or informal, communication is a process that involves a series of steps to convey information to create a shared understanding. It is said to be effective if a message is encoded, and decoded in the right way. Therefore hearing and listening are the basic level of communication to be able to decode the message (White, 2010).
Being a critical aspect of effective communication, listening has been defined as the ability of an individual to receive and interpret messages effectively (White, 2010). Effective listening ensures that messages accurately understood to avoid communication breakdown. The international listening association has identified listening as an important communication skill that those seeking to communicate effectively must have. The society has further broken down listening into discriminative, comprehensive and discriminative listening. Discriminative listening involves listening and without understanding the meaning of the message where as comprehensive Listening is an advanced form that involves understanding the message being communicated
Another basic element of communication is hearing. Hearing is defined as the physical and involuntary ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations through the ear. This is a natural ability. According to the international listening association, hearing is a process of perceiving sound with the help of special sense through which ear detects vibrations are detected and converts them to impulses that send them to the brains. Hearing may, therefore, occur while sleeping. However, brains may fail to react to the sound.
Hearing and listening appear to mean the same thing because they are both functional in communication (Gray, 2016). However, the difference between listening and hearing is that the sound is perceived in listening is based on attention whereas hearing involves the perception of sound with the help of the ears. William Seiler and Melissa Beall state that hearing just happens, one needs not to work at it. On the other hand, listening requires desire.

Listening has various subtypes that are effectively applicable in specific contexts and situations. The main subtypes of listening commonly used in interpersonal communication are casual listening, empathic listening, and factual listening.
Casual listening is listening without much attention and careful listening but with an alert subconscious. It involves observing with the brain but indirectly enhancing memory to appoint where one can recall what was being relayed. It is common applicable when observing point presentations in a board meeting. Human beings produce sound, the speaking voice that characterizes individual we therefore easily recognize each other exclusively based on the sound we hear out of context. Listeners apply casual listening when we listen to a radio presenter. While we receive the message, we have no idea of their physical attributes. This by no means prevents listeners from opening a file of the presenter in our memory, where vocal details are noted but remain blank for the time being. There is a significant difference between identifying the presenter’s vocal timbre and committing her visual image into memory (Cooper, 2014).
Empathic listening is a form of listening where the listeners fit into the speakers underlying concerns such as the emotional needs. It comes with a rational approach of empathizing with the listener and involves carefully paying attention to the emotional signal often common in customer service where the employees acknowledge emotional customer needs.
Another form of listening is factual listening. This according to White refers to this level listening where the listener has an open mind and is willing to suspend personal takes and judgment to take in information as it is simply. In this approach, Judges and arbitrators listen to everything with the wide-angle panoramic lens to objectively accurately collect information. The objective in factual listening is to collect information without the influence of personal assumptions and biases.

For a formal interview, Jenson’s choice of dress arguably plays a vital role in dictating the outcome. Knowing what to wear to such formal interview shapes the opinion that will be based on your appearance alone. Being a formal interview, Jenson ought to dress a notch above what normally considers suitable for a normal day’s work. Genuine advice is for her to consider formal suits as they never go out of fashion and are acceptable to both old and young. You have the choice of trousers or skirt. She can also consider a skirt suit but ensure that the skirt’s hemline is less than one biro length above the knee. Black navy or brown with lighter plain colors match together perfectly. Jenson must, by all means, avoid patterns. She should know where sensible heels height is the safest option.
The wrong advice could be for her to choose a shiny sex suit. It would work against her to try some rock star piece. The particular trend of a shiny suit that looks like a wedding gown would come out provoking the managers. Trying a short and tight skirt would appear provocative to the elderly Syed. Jenson can wear tight or too loose clothes or too casual. Otherwise, her position is a supervisory role which does not require much care about her appearance. Therefore, their judgment on how she should appear to customers will not be important. Let Jensen go to the interview with a slinky red dress. He plunging necklines may make her more sex and hence make her attractive to the interviewer of the job interview.

Custer is said to be meticulous in the dress. That suggests that he probably prefers decently dressed employees. She ought to make sure that she is dressed professionally in shoes polished. Besides, being a personnel manager, he would be keen to scrutinize Jensen’s qualification. She must, therefore, consider carrying a Portfolio with a copy of her resume, notepad, and pen. She must remain attentive, and confident throughout the interview process. Dressing decently would score her points in her interview with Custer. He is also a sexist. Jensen should avoid nonverbal cues that exaggerate her beauty as it will appear as though she is using her femininity to win him over. She must remain strictly professional and show confidence that though a female, she can be a competent supervisor.
Syed has the unkempt appearance. However, he has experience that has earned him the respect of managers. To him, Jensen must maintain eye contact and be polite with an even tone in her speech. She must keep her emotions to herself and not show anger. Dressing decently hear is vital. At his elderly age, Syed must be more conservative in his approach to grooming. Jensen should remember to give Ahmad Syed another firm handshake and smile. Thank Rodney Custer, Ahmad Syed, and Bobbie Kent for the interview with you. While speaking to Syed, speak clearly and avoid using slang.
Jenson’s strategy may differ deepening on the interview situation. For instance, if the types of job interviews change from a one on one to a behavioral interview, group interviews or phone situation. A group interview would call for a different set of strategy in preparation. Group interview would require that she produces more copies of her credentials that will be distributed among the interviewers. Secondly, a change in interview situation would require that she practices reframing her answers. A group interview meant that some individuals would scrutinize her body movement. She should in fact seat upright and to relax and lean forward towards the interviewer. It would also require that she relaxes and pay attention to the many questions that will come from some people. Carrying a pen a paper will help her take the key points form the interviewers to be addressed in her response (Trier, 2013).
If the interview situation changes, Jensen can choose the right interviewers. Jensen will work directly under Kent. Therefore she may choose to be interviewed by him. This is because Kent will typically conduct the interview based on the professional qualifications and job specialty and not on general issues such as the personnel manager. A different interview situation would also prompt the need for Jensen to prepare questions in advance. If the interview turns out to be a behavioral interview, Jensen should try to demonstrate her knowledge and experience. It is also important to pinpoint particular instances in which specific behavior was exhibited 
References

Cooper, M. (2014). NIU Listening $ Hearing Exam: Assessing College Level Communication Skills. International Listening Association. Journal, 2(1), 53-74.
Gray, S. H. (2016). Hearing. Ann Arbor, MI: Cherry Lake Pub.
Trier, L. V., & Lumholdt, J. (2013). Interviews. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
White, G. (2010). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press.