Transnational organized crime encompasses planning and execution of illicit activities by individuals in more than one country. These activities include: human trafficking, cyber-crimes, drugs trafficking, money laundering, sale of counterfeit goods among others. Basically, TOC is big business. In 2009, transnational organized crime was estimated to generate $870 billion per year. In addition, this growth is in line with Anomie theory where individuals or a network of people innovatively break the law in order to achieve success goals promoted in society. In the recent past, organized crime has become one of the basic factors considered when defining national security. TOC pose threat to peace and leads to human right violation by undermining societies’ social, economic and political development. Consequently, TOC has been placed as one of the top international agenda. It is clear that TOC is not a topic to ignore; its effects are far more reaching. From a broad perspective this essay will discuss transnational organized crime and assess its prohibition while scrutinizing its strength and weakness.
Secrecy is one of the foundations of TOC that make it fluid to handle. Additionally, over the last 10 years, production and logistic of TOC has changed significantly. These factors make it hard to access the diversity and operation OTC. However, today we know a lot of information about it than ever. Currently TOC is characterized by small reactive network of individuals. For example in Kenya, there are groups that have a membership of about 20 individuals with connection to political elites. These groups control most of the drug trade in Kenya (Gastrow, 2011). TOC groups are moving away from hierarchical organization characterized by one or two large organization. For examples, the Japanese yakuza and Sicilian mafia that control heroin trafficking to the US are diversifying their membership and changing its operation style (Albanese,2010). Meaning that TOC is evolving into interconnected, opportunistic and flexible networks in relation to changing global ‘ market’ including venturing into different criminal activities deviant from the old ones depending on political, economic and structural factors
Another factor that TOC has been able to capitalize on to ensure their operations are covered is use fragile states. TOC penetrate this state without necessary looking for market, there main reason is to secure passage of illicit good to a required country. For example, Mexico play the part of being fragile state for drugs destined to the US (Kleiman, 2011). However, TOC vitally depend on the co-operation of local officials. Much of its operation does not depend on public consent or indifferent. TOC are usually invited by local crime bosses as in Zetas in Guatemala or by rebellious groups looking for find as in the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan.
Lastly, TOC growth has be supported by infrastructures of the global economy. For instance, TOC capitalize on the flexibility and speed of trade, many trading routes and ease flow of information to make it difficult for border security to deal with activities. In addition, innovations, though welcome somehow encouraged growth of illicit activities, for example, ship containers and international money transfer (levinson, 2006). Although there exist a number of regulation aimed at deterring cross-border trafficking (like systematic ship container scanning) they faced with challenge of capacity and resource limitation meaning that proper legal clearing might result to delay that has consequence of driving business elsewhere.
Impacts of prohibition of organized crime
Prohibition results to escalation of mafia activities. For instance until 1920, mafia activities were regulated. When they were prohibited mafia group like led by Al Capone emerged. This mafia group was in control of Chicago in the 1920s. Similar, cases were observed in other cities in US where Italian gangs fought to be in control among themselves and other ethnicities in profitable bootlegging racket. Victorious group took charge and organized crime in their respective cities. As well these victorious factions set hierarchical systems in their respective cities. Worth mentioning this mafia groups offers various attractions like protection, a shared sense of belonging, comradeship and power. Above all, these groups give an opportunity to make vast amounts of money. In order to stay in control and enjoy all benefit of mafia group, there leaders ensures that their territories are in check and well guarded. To do this, force might be used that can result to loss of lives. For example, by the end of 1920s two rivals groups fought for control of criminal underworld in New York City. One was led by Salvatore Maranzano and the other by Masseria. This resulted to the murder of Masseria in 1931.Maranzano then divided new York city into five families organized the code of conduct on how disputes were solved. Most important he made himself the boss overall and all families were expected to pay tribute to him. Playing the boss did not go well with Maranzano, he was murdered within six months and Luciano took over. Mafia activities flourished until 1963 when Joe Valachi exposed their inner working activities. Since then their activities have declined with great effort from the government. In the 21st century, mafia groups are involved in illegal activities but in order to avoid the attention from the government they formed disguise criminal groups like the motorcycle gangs.
Prohibition was well intentioned – to stop consumption or use of illegal commodities- but it long term effects are disheartening. Instead, the very people that it is supposed to protect are innocently preyed upon. Prohibition creates demand for illicit goods and services. TOC sees this as a business venture thus they capitalize on it by supplying these goods and services. In order to fill this market niche individual gangs together, as a result increasing the number of gang groups. For example prohibition of alcohol resulted to more harm than good. Prohibition increased unnecessary demand for alcohol, because there were no law governing its production alcohol, alcohol made from wood killed about 10000 people. Those that were never killed served permanent blindness or severe organ damage. It was until alcohol was legalized that it deadly effects were controlled.
In conclusion, transnational organized crime is contagious problems that affect both the developed and undeveloped countries. As it stands, TOC effects cannot be ignored. As illustrated above it roots are far reaching and its effects on social, political-economic can be felt worldwide. Even with the best policies in place TOC seems to react innovatively towards them. Seeming it might take time to get rid of TOC.
Cannabis which is commonly known as marijuana is a product of the cannabis plant. The primary active ingredient of cannabis is tetrahydrocannbinol (THC). THC one of the 483 known compounds of the cannabis plant (El-Alfy, Abir T, et al, Jun 2010). Primarily, cannabis is consumed for its psychoactive and physiological effects. Cannabis has been a subject of legal restriction since the early 20th century with most countries passing laws that prohibit possession, use and sale of products with psychoactive cannabinoids. However, the number of those using marijuana is still high. According to UN worldwide estimates of 2014, 162million people use marijuana annually, and approximately 22.5 million people used marijuana daily. in the resent past there has been a rapid shifting in views regarding the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreation use. Cannabis has been a topic of controversy that has triggered many writers to explore. This essay is going to look into a few of this articles that reflect the current policies and social attitude toward marijuana.
The impacts of crimination, the current reality and future policy options by Patricia G. ERICKSON AND Benedikt Fischer.