This paper sought to analyze the average temperatures of London and Edinburg as well as giving a comparison between the temperatures.

Average temperature between London and Edinburgh
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Contents
Average temperature between London and Edinburgh 3
Introduction 3
Purpose 4
Weather station 4
Composition of a climate center or weather station 6
Questions of the study 10
Hypothesis of the study 10
Sources of data 11
Literature survey 11
El Niño–Southern Oscillation 13
North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) 15
Maden- Julian Oscillation 15
Climate models 15
Climatology and meteorology 16
Climatology and weather forecasting 17
Data presentation and analysis 18
Annual average of temperature in London 18
Annual average of temperature in Edinburg 19
Bar shape distribution for Edinburgh 20
Bar shape distribution for London 21
Results 21
Comparison of annual averages for the two cities 21
Comparison chart 22
Future predictions of temperature in August and September 2018, for both cities. The data was gathered from Accu Weather in the UK. 23
Discussion 23
Conclusion 24
References 25

Average temperature between London and Edinburgh
Abstract
This paper sought to analyze the average temperatures of London and Edinburg as well as giving a comparison between the temperatures. The study went further to predict the future temperatures of the two towns for two months, August and September in the year 2018. The study further revealed a number of factors that affect the temperatures of the two cities and a number of actors such as latitude, altitude, distance from the sea and ocean currents were discussed. The study revealed that the temperatures for the two cities were closely related or rather depict a small difference in the temperatures of an average of 3 degrees centigrade. It was revelaed that the climatic conditions are more or less the same for the two cities even though the weather conditions might seem to be different. It was predicted that the temperatures for Edinburg for August and September 2018 will be 15 and 13 respectively while London for August and September 2018 will be 17 and 14 respectively.

Introduction
Climatology also known as climate science is basically the study of climate. Scientifically scientists have gone further to describe climatology in different ways and carried out a number of scientific research to account for various climatic changes on earth and even on other planets and the radiant objects that is the moon and the sun. With respect to this, scientists have tried to find out the temperature variations and other climatic conditions with respect to atmospheric pressure and why they differ from one city to another
Climatology is a branch of atmospheric sciences and to some extent a field of geography, since besides it dealing with atmospheric concerns, factors such as temperature, humidity etc. it employs the geographical concepts together with the scientific concepts to ensure satisfied data or information is derived from the study or rather the scientific research. Climatology is an important aspect to the society at large as it aids weather forecasting which serves to sermon people on the future expected weather changes and thus they can easily plan their activities appropriately (Brugge, &Stuttard, 2003).
Weather forecasting today has taken a new twist with the introduction of the new technology in that weather forecasting has been dominated by technology, which has aided more accurate and reliable information about future expected weather and climatic changes. Before the new technology, there were a number of analog techniques that were employed in weather forecasting. Some of these analogue techniques are the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO),the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the NorthernPacific (NP) Index, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
These techniques were best employed or rather utilized with the help of a number of climatic models. The models together with the techniques were key in helping the scientists to make future climatic projections as well as weather projections.
Weather is basically the condition of the atmosphere over a period of time usually less than a year. Weather can be measured daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or yearly. The weather is recorded daily for instance the amount of rainfall is recorded daily as well as the atmospheric temperature. On the other hand, climate is the atmospheric condition over a long period of time usually more than one year. The climatic conditions of a place is regarded as the weather conditions of that particular areas studied over a long period, recorded either on daily basis, weekly, monthly etc. and analyzed to give the climatic condition of the particular place for the specified period.
Purpose
This study sought to analyze the average temperatures of London and Edinburg as well as giving a comparison between the temperatures. The study went further to predict the future temperatures of the two towns for two months, August and September in the year 2018.
Factors the influence the temperature of London and Edinberg
There are a number of factors that influence the temperatures of a place and the factors are diverse in most of the parts of the world. There are a number of factors that the temperatures of the two towns these include;
Latitude
The two cities are slightly away from the equator its thus expected that there temperatures are relatively lower since the earth’s surface is curved and the vertical rays of the sun strike different parts of the earth at different angles thus for those away from the equator there rays are not as intense as for those places near the equator.
Altitude
This simply the height above sea level. The higher the altitude the higher the temperature and the lower the altitude the lower the temperature. London is 35m above sea level while Edinberg is 47m above sea level, this thus imply that the two cities experience a slightly lower temperature as they have a relatively high altitude. This so since at high altitude the amount atmospheric pressure decreases due to the less water vapor in the air, there is less heat absorption by the atmosphere leading to the low temperatures.
Distance from the sea
The two cities experience different temperatures during the summer and winter. In the summer, the sea cooler than the land leading to low temperatures and during the winter, the sea is warmer than the land thus the temperatures are relatively high.
Ocean currents
The two cities experience both cold and warm ocean currents. The cold currents bring water from the Polar Regions thus leading to low temperatures while the warm currents bring warm water thus raising the temperatures
Humidity
This is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. The two cities experience high humidity where is a large amount of cloud cover thus low temperature while when there is low humidity there is a low amount of cloud cover thus high temperatures.
Weather station
Scientifically this can be referred to as a Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The place is specifically a scientific Centre whose main purpose to study weather and record the daily findings that will aid the analysis of the climatic conditions of the various places, towns and continents. Normally a climate center is located on a generally flat land this aid the recording of the weather conditions. For instance, the location of a rain gauge needs a very land for its location to allow for accurate collection of the amount rainfall per downfall. The same applies to other instruments like the windvane and windsock which in turn require a gently slope for location.
The stations are usually agencies or agents or otherwise act as agencies to national bodies such as the national oceanic and atmospheric administration’s office of the U.S. in the United States, the climate prediction center has its headquarters at College Park, Maryland. The center was started in the late 18th century by the United States army.
Weather stations should be strategically located so that the weather instruments can capture all the intended data in real without compromising the quality of data and information. in the US for instance there are the set standards that scientists and government agencies have to adhere to before setting up a weather station.. There are a number of climatic prediction products from the climatic center in the USA. These include GOES-13, GOES-15, Meteosat-7, Meteosat-9 and MTSAT-2 as shown in the diagram below:

Composition of a climate center or weather station
An ideal climate center comprise of a number of instruments used to measure the weather conditions as well as gather data from scientific and other electronic data collection instruments. A weather station or rather a climate center comprise of a number of instruments and with recent technological developments and advancements in technology, a climate center will always need to have a satellite dish. The dish receives and transfers data from the space satellites the super computers that code and analyze the data thus giving information concerning the climatic condition. The satellitesare used to collect data from all over the world thus making it easy to reach almost all places of the world and even outside the earth gathering data concerning the different phenomenon.
To determine the temperature of a place of a place for instance, the satellite records the amount of warmth or cold and sends a signal to the dish where its send to the super computers for analysis and recording. This is done repeatedly over a long period of time and recorded together with the trends and in turn they comprise the climatic condition of a particular selected area.
The center further encompasses such instruments as:
 The rain gauge. This is an instrument used in measuring the amount rainfall of a place. Normally it’s located in open ground away from any tall buildings or trees, this serves to prevent splashing of water into the rain gauge enhancing accuracy of the instrument. The instrument is normally raised above the ground this serves to prevent splash water from entering the gauge thus ensuring accuracy. After a downpour, the instrument is always emptied and again for next upcoming rainfall. When is done repeatedly for a period more than a year, it comprises the climatic condition of the particular place with respect to the rainfall patters of the particular area of interest.
 The wind vane. This is used to measure the direction of wind. The instrument is located in the open air away from tall trees and buildings as well this serves to ensure accuracy of the instrument
 The windsock. Itis used to measure the strength and direction of wind as well. It is one of the weather instruments that measures two aspects of weather that direction and strength of wind. Just as the wind vane and the windsock, its also placed in the open air to guarantee effectiveness of the instrument.
 The anemometer. This measures the speed of wind. Just as the wind vane, wind sock and the rain gauge, it is also placed in the open air to ensure accuracy of the instruments.
 Stevensons screen. This is an instrument that houses or shelters meteorological instruments such as the thermometers, hygrometer, psychrometer, dew cell, barometer and a thermograph. The thermometers measures the temperature of a place or area which is the coldness or hotness or rather warmness of a place. The hygrometer used to measure the relative in the air which is expressed as a percentage and comprises the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. The Psychrometer measures the relative humidity in the air by the use of two thermometers i.e. the dry bulb thermometer and the wet bulb thermometer. The dry bulb thermometer measures temperature by being exposed to air while the wet bulb thermometer measures temperature by its bulb being dipped in a liquid. The barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure. The dry cells are used to determine the dew point and consist of a heating element surrounded by lithium chloride.
The Stevenson screen is a specially designed to hold meteorological instruments. Its size varies with respect to the number of instruments that itis designed to hold. The instruments is louvered to allow for air circulation. Itis paintedwhite to reflect away excess light. It is normally raised above the ground level so as to prevent it from heat from the ground.
The climate predictions and services are very important and have a variety of users. There are such users as the government, the general public and the private industry. The climatic predictions are important as they;
 Help the government to plan for future climatic changes that are deemed to occur in future. Such include planning for a prolonged expected drought, expected high rains that would lead to floods and thus people displaced. The government sets aside funds for such anticipated calamities this proves how important meteorology is to the government and other stakeholders.
 Helps people in planning for the future events. With the climatic forecasts, planning for such events as the international Olympics, world cup is made easy as planners are aware of the expected weather changes thus scheduling is properly done and the activities will be a success without much altering the stipulated program or time frame of the activities.
 Sailors are made to understand when to travel and when not to as they know when the tornadoes, hurricanes and changes in the sea dynamics thus thus travelling is surely aided.
 Explorers have access to the required information of when to travel and explore since all the times and expected weather changes are analyzed and stipulated thus they can easily avoid the weather changes as well as effects associated or the limitations of the adverse weather changes.
 The general public are meant to understand the when to expect cold weathers or expect warm weathers and thus plan appropriate clothing for the different weather times.
 Farmers greatly benefit from weather forecasting as they know when to expect rains and thus they can easily plan when to cultivate, plant and harvest.
 Scientists are also meant to understand when to visit other places like the moon and explore other planets.
Objectives of the study
To determine the annual average temperature of London
To determine the annual average temperature of Edinburg
To determine the measure of skewness in the temperature distributions for London
To determine the measure of skewness in the temperature distributions for Edinburg
To make future predictions of temperature in August and September for the year 2018 of London
To make future predictions of temperature in August and September for the year 2018 of Edinburg
Questions of the study
The study was guided by the following questions;
What is the annual average temperature of London?
What is the annual average temperature of Edinburg?
What is the measure skewness in the temperature distributions for London?
What is the measure of skewness in the temperature distributions for Edinburg?
What will be the temperatures in August and September for the year 2018 of London?
What will be the temperatures in August and September
Hypothesis of the study
Null hypothesis
The annual average temperature of London is 12 degree
The annual average temperature of Edinburg is 11 degrees
The annual temperature distribution of London is symmetrical
The annual temperature distribution of Edinburg is symmetrical
The future temperatures of London in August and September will be 20 and 18 respectively
The future temperatures of Edinburg in August and September will be 18 and 16 respectively
Alternative hypothesis
The annual average temperature of London is not 12 degrees
The annual average temperature of Edinburg is not 11degrees
The annual temperature distribution of London is asymmetrical
The annual temperature distribution of Edinburg is asymmetrical
The future temperatures of London in August and September won’t be 20 and 18 respectively
The future temperatures of Edinburg in August and September will not be 18 and 16 respectively
Sources of data
The study used secondary data from AccuWeather in the UK.
Literature survey
Though climatology is studied as part of the physical geography, it differs significantly from weather. The root word for climatology is climate . In this case, climatology depicts the changes in weather patterns that occurs over a large span of time in specific region. According to Chinese scientist ShenKuo (1031-1095), climates naturally shifted history over an enormous span of time possibly a century. According to Chinese scientist ShenKuo (1031–1095), climates naturally shifted history over an enormous span of time. The weather changes occur in various ways and recorded by throughweatherinstruments.To ascertain that climate change has occurred there is aneed to conduct a thorough analysis by appropriate agencies and personnel. At the same time, the scientists use the recorded data to predict the climatic outcomes of certain regions of interest in the future. Some of the parameters used to determine change in climate include rainfall and humidity percentage as well as the temperature ranges. Scientists not only conduct research on the climatic conditions to know the future conditions but also to ascertain the effects of such climate conditions to the environment. It is worth noting that climate is an integral aspect in the survival of both animals and plants. Over the years, scholars have conducted extensive research on climatology and weather forecasting. However, the most importantthing to note is that innovation and creativity been core to the advancement of climatology as a discipline and weather forecasting.
Early studies on climatology date back in the 1600s. A classic example of scientists in climatology is Edmund Halley. Edmund Halley drew the trade winds’ map that could be used by sailors to travel to and from the southern hemisphere. Here, using this map, sailors and readers could predict the distance and the time that the expected winds will come and this determined when and where to dock their ships. It is therefore evident that even during the ancient times; the people appreciated the effects of climate to the environment.
Helmut Landsbergis believed to have first usedmodels of statistical analysis to study climate thereby opening a new chapter in the study of climatology as part of geographical sciences. His use of such models sparked a new era of scientists using sophisticated and complex models to measure the aspects of climatology and weather forecasting.
The formal study of climate started in Greece by the Greek. Philosophers such as Hippocrates, who wrote about concepts such air, water and places temperature over 30 years, authored the first distinct works on climate (Lioubimtseva, 2014).
It is from the chunks of data collected about the patterns of weather over lengthy periods that the term climatology emerged. These Greek scholars adopted various approaches to study climatology. For instance, to study hurricanes the Greek scholars used paleoclimatology approach. Meteorological data sets such as the range of temperature, atmospheric pressure and rainfallwerealso used to measure the climatic conditions of the ancient scientists. It should be understood that during this epoch these parameters were measured through observation as the main data collection method.
Today, the study of climate is embedded in technological models that are either mathematical or statistical. These models integrate past and present data sets to determine the outcome of the climate changes on the future. Forinstance, modelling and historical climatology can be used to predict viable climatic conditions in the future. Through modeling, scientists are able to garner information about the present climatic conditions and the anticipated conditions. On the other hand, historical climatology is used togarner information about climate in relation to the history of human beings. Notably, even when there was little knowledge about climatology people adopted lifestyles that concurred with the climate conditions. Therefore, by tracing the history of a specific community or region, it is possible to get data about the climate conditions of that region. The way of life of a people has to concur with the climatic conditions of their region. As such, places that were cold or hot in the ancient times, up to date people have maintained the lifestyles that seek to concur with such weather conditions. however, where the changes in climate have been witnessed, communities have adjusted to fit into the new conditions.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
This is one of the global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. This oscillation is particularly experienced in The Pacific Ocean. Here, the temperature fluctuations across the pacific leading to changes in weather patterns that have ultimately determined the climate of the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. Historically, Elninois witnessed in the last month of every year. As such, the term has been assigned numerous connotations including religious ones. Etymologically, Elnino is a Spanish term denoting “the little boy”. In America, the term refers to ‘the little girl’. Over the years, the areas around the pacific have witnessed profound effects of El-nino including tremendous fluctuations in temperatures.
Commonly referred to as the southern oscillation, this weather condition results in significant fluctuation in seasons either monthly or weekly and is experienced in Tahiti and Darwin. Recently the two regions witnessed Elnino from late 2006 to the early months of 2007.
According to Prichard (2015, p.190), the southern oscillation o curs after every two years. However, the oscillation can delay for up to seven years. It should be understood the southern oscillation of the Elnino does not just occur around the pacific but also in other regions only that it occurs in minor effects. It is also noteworthy that the detrimental effects of oscillations cannot be ignored.
Other regions that have witnessed the potentially harmful effects of the Elnino southern oscillation are tropical sections of the Indian Ocean. In the regions where agriculture and fishery are the thriving drivers of the economy, it is apparent that Elnino southern oscillation has compromised the returns of these sectors. It is worth noting that the southern oscillation results in floods and even unfavorable temperatures that cannot support agricultural activities as well as fisheries.
Since the Elnino southern oscillation is a global phenomenon that is taking different shapes with each passing day, it is still not clear the extent to which global warming is anticipated to influence the southern oscillation (B. Schwebel, 2017, p.155).
North Atlantic oscillation (NAO)
Studied by Brugge, &Stuttard, (2003), the events of the north Atlantic oscillation are largely influenced by atmospheric pressure and sea level. The northern oscillation is witnessed in the areas around Iceland, Azores, and Ponta Delgada. Notably the northern oscillation is calculated by measuring the variables of sea level pressure between two regions to determine the stringer index and this the possible climate conditions.
Maden- Julian Oscillation
The events of this oscillation are experienced at western and central regions of the pacific ocean. It occurs on plateaus and usually results in unpredictable and abnormal rainfalls. Immediately after the oscillation, there is a continuous phase of precipitation and convection with each cycle taking 1 to 2 months (Urothody, &, Larsen, 2010).
Climate models
It is worth noting that climate change is an interaction of numerous space entities such as the elements of land surface atmosphere and water masses. Therefore, to make correct and viable weather predictions, climate models adopt interdisciplinary approaches. Most importantly, quantitative data analysis methods are integral in climate models. Quantitative data garners numerical values that are accurate and represent the exact occurrence in the regions of interest.
One of the most commonly used models is the radioactive convective. This model converts the earth to a single landmass gathers data from a single point of view (Keenlyside, & Ba, 2010). However, it should be understood that the models of climate vary depending on the region, the entity to be measured among other factors.
According to Lee, Chun, Han, and Kim, (2016, P.8). climate models, perceive the earth as a single object in landmass that is the size of grid cells. It is against this backdrop that the element of time becomes integral in climate models. Here the more the climate model is exposed to ascertain climatic element the higher the chances of garnering accurate data and thus give correct predictions about the future climate conditions. Here, the time element can be calculated in terms of seconds, minute, hours or even seasons depending on whether the model measures short term or long-term conditions. The computing power of the climate models also varies based on the technology applied. While some of the models may use sophisticated models, others use analog models and this result in data disparity.
Notably, after setting up a climate model it is imperative to test it using the hind casting technique. The hind casting technique records data in the past the present as well as in the future. This kind of testing enables the climate models to record and predict data with a high precision and accuracy. It is worth noting that scientists across the world have to work together while testing the climate models because every climatic conditions of a region affects the entire globe.
Climatology and meteorology
Every region has a meteorological department that periodically updates the residents on the daily weather patterns. According to Knipp (2016), Meteorology encompasses the study of patterns of weather in the short term. Short-term predictions in this case depict to weather patterns within the range of hours, days, weeks, and months. Climatology on the other hand is the analysis of big data on weather patterns over lengthy periods of time. This means that climatology is interested in the understanding of climate and its associated phenomena. Some of the areas that Climatology addresses include radiation, latent heats, atmospheric pressure, and sea level.
It is noteworthy that the short-term predictions are the ones that influence the long-term climatic conditions that go a long way in determining the climate of a region.
Climatology and weather forecasting
As asserted earlier, there is a correlation between climatology and weather forecasting. In a way, the data garnered from the weather forecasts is important in determining the future predictions of climatic conditions. As such, this filed has evolved over the years with scientists coming up with advanced instruments, models and approaches for weather predictions.
From the use of analog approaches, today scientists apply viable techniques commonly known as the teleconnections. Through this approach, satellitesare installed in areas of interest and they are able to record all the data that the scientist intends to analyze. Such innovation in the meteorological sector helps to collect accurate data in real time and is of great aid in deciphering complex climateconditions such as global warming.
For climatology to be accurate, the scientists have to focus on the daily data collections of the weather forecasts. Essentially, the weather forecast are the pillars for the successful predictions of climate change.
From the literature, no study had studied the climatic condition of London and Edinburg thus forming the study topic for my research or dissertation. Notably, these two cities are explored at a time when climate change is happening and changing every facet of life of the contemporary epoch. It is believed that the data garnered and interpreted in this study will benefit stakeholders such as scientists, meteorologists, and government agencies. The comparison also reveals the climate changes and how they occur uniquely in different places.
Data presentation and analysis
Annual average of temperature in London

The average temperature of London is evenly distributed throughout the years. The average temperature for the years was 12dgrees centigrade. The highest average temperature was in 2006 and it was at 12.4 degrees while the lowest annual average temperature was in 2010 and it was 11degrees. From the findings we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis. It’s thus evident that the annual average temperature of London is 12 degrees centigrade.
Annual average of temperature in Edinburg

The average temperature of Edinburg is evenly distributed throughout the years. The average temperature for the years was 10 degrees centigrade. The highest average temperature was in 2004 and it was at 10.8 degrees while the lowest annual average temperature was in 2010 and it was 8.4 degrees. From the findings we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. It is thus evident that the annual average temperature of Edinburg is lower than 11degrees centigrade as it is 10 degrees centigrade

Bar shape distribution for Edinburgh

From the figure the annual temperature distribution is symmetrical since the frequencies increase up to 0.85 and then decrease forming a normal distribution. This implies that the distribution is neither positively nor negatively skewed. We therefore accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis.
Bar shape distribution for London

From the figure, the annual temperature distribution is asymmetrical. The distribution is negatively skewed as the frequencies form unbalanced pattern and the curve shows a prolonged tail to the left. More than half of the area of the distribution curve is to the left of the mode of 12. We therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
Results
Comparison of annual averages for the two cities
Edinburgh London
Year Annual Average Temperature(oC) Annual Average Temperature(oC)
2000 9.4 11.9
2001 9.1 11.6
2002 9.7 12.4
2003 9.8 12.5
2004 10.6 12
2005 9.9 12.1
2006 9.8 12.6
2007 9.9 12.1
2008 9.5 11.6
2009 9.7 12.2
2010 8.5 11

Comparison chart

From the above table and chart London recorded the highest annual average temperature from 2000 to 2010 compared to Edinburg which recorded a relatively lower annual average temperature from 2000 to 2010.
Future predictions of temperature in August and September 2018, for both cities. The data was gathered from Accu Weather in the UK.

Discussion
From the findings of the study, it is evident that the temperature distribution of Edinburg is symmetrical and as such, there are no great fluctuations in the temperature distribution as the temperature is evenly distributed. It is thus expected that the temperatures in Edinburg for August and September 2018 will be 15 and 13 respectively. We thus reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
The study findings reveal that the temperature distributions for London are asymmetrical and as such, they are they fluctuating steadily with a very small margin. It is expected that the temperatures for August and September 2018 will be 17 and 14 respectively. We thus reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
Conclusion
Overall, climatology proves to be a very important aspect in the lives of people, as without it life would prove to be very difficult in one way or the other. For instance planning for such events as Olympics and world cup would be so difficult without weather forecasting in agriculture, energy, transportation, water resources, and health. To ensure quality climatic services, there are continual research, innovation, and renovation, which serves to increase the use of models and interactions with user groups.
The temperatures of the two cities are relatively close or rather related to each other with reference to the study period. The data set given on comparison of the temperatures of the two towns reveal that the difference in the annual average temperature for the two towns is approximately 3 degrees centigrade. This thus imply that the temperature experienced at either London is most likely to be the temperature experienced at Edinberg though a slight difference in the temperatures is recorded.
With respect to this effect there is a high chance the climatic conditions at London and those at Edinberg are almost the same even though the weather conditions for the two may vary or rather be different on a number of days but in the long run the recordings of the weather trend reveal the same climatic conditions for the two cities.

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