The recommendation and discussion will be ended by energy will be saved by using the recycle of steam and the heat of combined cycle to boil the seawater and efficiency. Mention some ideas that will be done in multi stage flusher to increase the efficiency.

For this task
Finalize this proposal as theses project
• The recommendation and discussion will be ended by energy will be saved by using the recycle of steam and the heat of combined cycle to boil the seawater and efficiency. Mention some ideas that will be done in multi stage flusher to increase the efficiency. Mention calculation and equations of heat
• Include hysys software to simulate the MSF and design of of the flusher
Here is the proposal
Desalination of Seawater by Combined Cycle

Desalination seawater by combined cycle

November,15th 2017

Table Contents

Contents Page number
Time Table 14

Depletion of natural resources such as water is one of the challenges facing contemporary economies and the current generation. Governments have turned to sustainable means of resource utilization in an effort to slow down the depletion of resources and replace the depleted resources. Shortage of water is one of the challenges facing many countries, and particularly the historically arid areas like the Middle East. However, water shortage is not primarily limited to the arid areas, as regions that used to have sufficient access to water provided by rivers and lakes are suddenly suffering the same fate of water shortage. This shortage can be attributed to the dramatically changing weather patterns characterized by erratic rainfall, longer dry periods, and population growth that have increased upstream water use, hence reducing downstream water reach (Pleis, 2015).
As the availability of freshwater diminishes across the world, desalination of seawater has been adopted as a sustainable means of increasing access to clean potable water in countries experiencing shortages. Desalination of seawater is one of the strategies that have been widely adopted in turning seawater to fresh potable and uncontaminated water. Desalination refers to the process through which minerals and salt are extracted from saline seawater with the aim of making the water fresh and potable (Logan, 2017). There are various types of desalination, including vacuum distillation, vapor compression distillation, reverse osmosis, freeze-thaw, multi-stage flash distillation, and multi-effect distillation among others. However, desalination methods are mostly criticized for excess energy consumption, the cost of infrastructure and maintenance, and cogeneration (Pleis, 2015).
Multi-stage flash desalination, MSF involves the evaporation and separation of seawater through a series of partial evaporations (Baig, Antar & Zubair, 2011). The seawater is distilled through a series of countercurrent heat exchangers. According to Logan (2017), MSF produced approximately 60% of freshwater from the saline seawater. This method has however been criticized for its energy consumption, inefficiency, and cogeneration, factors that have significant effects on the environment. MSF consumes a lot of energy due to the several series of distillation that the saline water goes through, which requires a significant amount of energy. The goal of this project is to analyze MSF’s heat consumption, possible energy saving strategies, and how the energy efficiency of heat exchange can be increased during MSF in order to get good quality potable fresh water.
Problem Statement
Multi-stage flash distillation is a common desalination method that involves flash evaporation of portions of water into steam through a series of multiple stages and heat exchangers (El-Ghonemy, 2017). The desalination plant contains a series of spaces that are referred to as stages, with each stage containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector (Baig, Antar & Zubair, 2011). The sequence of stages is bordered between a cold and hot end, while the intermediate spaces contain intermediate temperatures and pressures. The differential pressure in the spaces corresponds to the boiling point of the water at each stage temperature. Cold water is pumped at the inlet, through to the heat exchangers and the pumped water warms up at every stage. The pumped water has almost twice the temperature by the time it reaches the brine stage. More heat is added in the heater while the water flows through valves and back into the stages that have lower pressure and low temperature (Logan, 2017).
Water flowing through the valves and back into the stages is referred to as brine so as to differentiate it from the water input through the inlet. The brain is exposed to high temperatures that are above the boiling point for each pressure point, which makes a small portion of the water to “flash” of boil to stem (El-Ghonemy, 2017). Consequently, the flash causes a reduction in temperature until the stage achieves equilibrium. Since the resultant steam is usually hotter than the water being fed into the heat exchanger, the released steam cools off and condenses within the tubes of the heat exchanger, which provides heat to warm up the inlet water all over again.
Approximately 15% of the water fed through the exchanger evaporates, although the range varies depending on the temperatures used throughout the heat exchanger (El-Ghonemy, 2017). The multi-stage flash distillation is, however criticized for high energy consumption and cogeneration. Cogeneration refers to the combined generation of heat and electricity at the same time. The method therefore requires a complex integration of a power plant and a heat engine to help utilize the energy and the heat efficiently (El-Ghonemy, 2017). The complex power plant is expensive, but effective in energy and heat saving if a cogeneration power is incorporated. In addition to high energy and power consumption, the multi-stage flash distillation is criticized for the inefficiency of the heat exchanger (Baig, Antar, & Zubair, 2011). This project will involve a review the existing literature to determine the efficiency of the MSF distillation method for desalination, the cost of desalination using the MSF distillation method, and how efficiency can be improved to enhance the capacity of the MSF to produce potable fresh water through desalination.
Goal – The goal of this project is to evaluate consumption of heat, save energy, and increased efficiency of heat exchange when using a multi-stage flash distillation to desalinate seawater into fresh potable water.
Literature Review
Extensive research into the efficiency and heat and energy consumption of the MSF distillation method has been carried out with the aim of establishing the efficiency of the method in desalinating seawater into potable fresh water, with sustainability being the main focus of the research. In the recent past, the demand for fresh potable water has surpassed the supply of the same, forcing governments to look for alternative measures to enhance supply of fresh water to the society. Erratic weather changes, increased upstream consumption of water, and population growth are the main factors that have contributed to the growing shortage of fresh water in the world (Logan, 2017). While arid areas such as the gulf in the Middle East have been the most affected by water shortage, even non-arid areas are slowly experiencing water shortages related to erratic changes in weather and increase in water demand due to population growth. Desalination of the seawater has been largely adopted as a sustainable method of increasing supply of fresh potable water.
While desalination of sea water is highly recommended as a way of enhancing access to clean potable water, it has also been criticized for energy consumption and inefficiency. The multi-stage flash distillation method is a desalination method that has received as much criticism as it has received praise. Missimer, Kim, Rachman, and Ng. (2013) sought to evaluate and describe different sustainable, renewable energy seawater desalination techniques that use combined cycle solar and geothermal heat sources. According to this article, technological advances in desalination of seawater has primarily focused on reducing the overall energy consumption by making the process greener, while at the same time reducing the cost of the potable water that is delivered after desalination.

Fig: shows seawater desalination in the process

(Missimer et al., 2013)
Missimer et al. (2013) acknowledged that absorption desalination – AD – is one of the recent technological innovations that have helped improve sustainability in the desalination of seawater. AD has significant potential in reducing the need to use of conventional power, such as renewable sources of energy, hence reducing the overall cost of desalination. Waste heat, geothermal heat, and solar heat are some of the renewable sources of energy that AD incorporates in reducing the cost and enhancing efficiency. However, absorption desalination that uses alternative energy calls for the implementation of heat storage, as the alternative sources of energy are sometimes irregular.
For example, solar power can only be generated by the day, and the desalination plant would therefore require a heat storage system in order to desalinate water by the night. While the use of solar energy for desalination in combined-cycle is termed by Missimer et al. (2013) as effective, it raises the need for extra costs because of the extra equipments needed for heat and energy storage during fluctuations.
Fig: Show desalination using solar power

According to the same article, the inconsistency with solar power energy can be resolved by combining the use of solar energy with the use of geothermal power. Missimer et al. (2013) posits that subsurface geothermal energy sources are underutilized, despite the ability of the geothermal sources of energy to provide an effective and sustainable alternative to the storage problem presented by the use of solar energy. Missimer et al. (2013) concludes that combination of the solar and geothermal energy sources using the 12-hr cycle has the potential to reduce depletion of heat sources within the geothermal while providing an effective and sustainable source of energy when solar energy is not effective.
According to this article, using combined cycle solar and geothermal heat sources in multi-stage flash distillation to desalinate seawater is not only energy-efficient, but also cost effective and enhances the efficiency with which fresh water is delivered to the consumers. This article will furnish this project with quality research-based evidence regarding the efficiency of the combined cycle multi-stage flash distillation in desalinating seawater into fresh potable water. In addition, the article highlights the cost-effectiveness of the same method in delivering the potable water to consumers. Abdulrahim and Darwish (2015) also sought to investigate the effectiveness of the absorption desalination technique in thermal desalination and air conditioning. This article adopted a slightly different approach in determining the sustainability and effectiveness of the AD technique by incorporating the concept of air conditioning with desalination of water.
According to Abdulrahim and Darwish (2015), the absorption heat-driven system doubles up as a refrigerator, a heat pump, and/or a heat transformer, which enable the combined system to serve as desalination system, a refrigerator, and an air conditioner. In a world where optimum heat and energy use is critical for a greener environment, the combined cycle system serves as the best sustainable system for desalination of water and other uses that consume a significant amount of energy. This article will furnish the project with crucial information regarding the various uses of the combined cycle system, which include desalination and air conditioning. Understanding the various uses of the combined cycle system in the desalination of seawater helps in further understanding of how to develop MFS desalination systems that optimally utilize the heat and energy for sustainability.
Baig, Antar, & Zubair (2011) evaluated the performance of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation method of desalination and the impact of the fouling of the brine heater. The once-through multi-stage flash distillation is not only ineffective and costly compared to the combined cycle system, but it was also found to be ineffective in distilling seawater efficiently in potable fresh water. The authors of the article also found that the fouling of the brine heater bears significant impacts on the quality of the final product. The once-through MSF was also energy consuming, hence unsustainable.
A combined-cycle system, on the other hand, provides an energy efficient desalination system where the waste heat and energy are recycled into the system, hence reducing wastage. This article provides the project with essential information by evaluating a once-through MSF distillation and the findings can be used to compare the system with the combined cycle system. The results can then be used to make informed decisions regarding the most efficient, energy saving, and cost effective desalination method (Ghaffour, Lattemann, Missimer, Ng, Sinha, and Amy, 2014).
Ghaffour et al. (2014) investigated a host of sustainable renewable energy-driven and innovative energy efficient desalination technologies that are currently in use across the world. One of the innovative energy efficient and sustainable desalination technologies highlighted in this article is the combined cycle process, which can be integrated into the different desalination processes such as the multi-stage flash distillation process. According to this article, the combined cycle multi-stage flash distillation allows for reuse of waste energy produced through the desalination process (Shafaghat, Shafaghat, Ghanbari, Rezaei, and Espanani, 2012).
The reuse of energy not only enhances the efficiency with which the plant operates to deliver potable water to its consumers, but it also cost effective and sustainable as it allows reuse of waste energy by the system. Ghaffour et al. (2014) also confirms the importance of the combined cycle MSF desalination method compared to the once-through desalination technique. This article will also furnish the project with essential information on the benefits of the combined cycle MSF desalination over the drawbacks and this will facilitate informed choice when implementing the desalination process.
Shafaghat et al. (2012) also had similar findings about the combined cycle desalination system when analyzing the design of MSF desalination plant to be supplied by a new specific 42 MW power plant. According to this article, reuse of energy reduces consumption of new energy, making the process more sustainable and greener. Similarly, the reuse of energy through a combined cycle in a multi-stage flash distillation process reduces cost while maximizing on the energy by reducing wastages through reuse. These articles, however, did not lack flaws that limited the validity of the research.
A common limitation among the articles is the lack of direct comparison between different methods of desalination due to insufficient time. In addition, the studies faced limitation presented by the various factors that influence the efficiency of each desalination technique, for example, funds, weather, and the demand for fresh potable water. Another common limitation is the use of different factors to gauge the effectiveness of various desalination techniques. The different factors do not present a fair platform for comparison of the different techniques.
The methodology used to achieve the goal of the project was the systematic review of literature. Systematic review of literature involves a critical assessment and appraisal of existing literature related to a certain topic. A search strategy was employed in retrieving the most relevant literature related to the topic. The initial process of retrieving the relevant literature involved searching the web using a general search engine such as Google, which provided essential information that helped in familiarizing with the topic. The general search did not include the use of keywords and other primary limitation features that help in returning particularized search results. The next step involved selection of keywords combined with operators, which helped access more results that are most related to the topic.
Keywords such as “Combined cycle AND multi-stage flash distillation OR desalination, “multi-stage flash distillation AND desalination”, “Multi-stage flash distillation AND energy efficiency or cost efficiency” and “Combined cycle AND desalination” were used to refine the search for the most relevant articles. In addition, the search was limited to, articles published within the last 7 years, which helped in accessing the most recent literature on the combined cycle and multi-stage flash desalination process. A quick review of the abstracts and the methodologies used in every article was used to determine the validity and reliability of the articles.
Discussion and Recommendation
The critical evaluation and appraisal of the literature on utilization of heat in combined cycle to desalinate seawater to potable water using the multi-stage flash method revealed that there are innovative contemporary ways of enhancing the process. The multi-stage flash distillation method is one of the desalination techniques that consume a significant amount of energy due to the number of stages to which the inlet water is exposed to heat before it is turned into vapor and condensed into potable water.
The goal of desalination is to not only provide potable water to the consumers, but also to do so at the most convenient, sustainable, and cost-efficient way as possible. The literature review revealed that any desalination process finally faces the challenge of disposing the brine. Returning it to the sea has been found to bear negative impacts on the marine life, while inland dumping have the same negative impacts on the plant and animal life on land.
Additional power generation using the brine using a combined cycle is one of the most sustainable ways of generating potable water while reusing waste energy. The brine is combined with additional seawater to generate electricity using the salinity gradient energy (El-Ghonemy, 2017). The energy can then be rechanneled back to the desalination plant to provide heat for the plant, hence cutting down on costs associated with the production of potable water through multi-stage flash distillation process. Adsorption desalination is the most common and contemporary innovation used in combined cycle desalination system (El-Ghonemy, 2017). This technique has been proven to be the most effective in the reuse of waste heat, such as the one produced by desalination processes such as multi-stage flash distillation.
Combined cycle in multi-stage flash distillation is therefore not only effective in utilizing heat to desalinate seawater into potable water, but it also saves energy through reuse of energy, cost effective and sustainable. These features of the combined cycle multi-stage flash distillation technique make it suitable for countries that mainly rely on seawater for potable fresh water for domestic and industrial use and nonrenewable sources of energy. Based on the above benefits, I would recommend the combined cycle multi-stage flash distillation technique be used to desalinate seawater.

Time Table:
Below table show the timeline for theses completion
Tasks/Date September October November December
Project Start (Proposal) –
write the proposal ——-
Agreement with adviser –
Collect Data by visiting water desalination plant —————————————–
Measure the purity of water in different heat fluxes – ———–
Modeling Design ———————-
Calculation Analysis ———-
Applied and test the Methodology – —- —-
Finalize the theses ——————
Project End ——

Abdulrahim, H. K., & Darwish, M. A. (2015). Thermal desalination and air conditioning
using absorption cycle. Desalination and Water Treatment, 55(12), 3310-3329.
Baig, H., Antar, M. A., & Zubair, S. M. (2011). Performance evaluation of a once-through
multi stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling. Energy Conversion and Management, 52(2), 1414-1425.
El-Ghonemy, A. M. K. (2017). Performance test of a sea water multi-stage flash distillation
plant: Case study. Alexandria Engineering Journal.
Ghaffour, N., Lattemann, S., Missimer, T., Ng, K. C., Sinha, S., & Amy, G. (2014).
Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies. Applied Energy, 136, 1155-1165.
Logan, B. E. (2017). The Global Challenge of Sustainable Seawater Desalination.
Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 197
Missimer, T. M., Kim, Y. D., Rachman, R., & Ng, K. C. (2013). Sustainable renewable
energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(4-6), 1161-1170
Pleis, J. R. (2015). Experimental and numerical investigation of a multi-generation
desalination power plant (Doctoral dissertation).
Shafaghat, R., Shafaghat, H., Ghanbari, F., Rezaei, P. S., & Espanani, R. (2012). Design of a
MSF desalination plant to be supplied by a new specific 42 MW power plant . World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 62.