The management of change requires a combined effort by both the employees and managers in order to achieve a new culture of doing things with no risk of reverting back to the old culture of doing things (BMA Inc, 1).

Managing Organizational Change: Strategic Planning and Organizational Development
The management of change requires a combined effort by both the employees and managers in order to achieve a new culture of doing things with no risk of reverting back to the old culture of doing things (BMA Inc, 1). A customer is a key player in the production system of a production. The Toyota Company of Japan produced a managerial tool that was intended to factor in the attributes of customers towards the production of products. In this case, machines were designed in such a way to minimize waste (Muda) while optimizing production (Womack and Jones 5). This involved training employees on the identification of weaker areas in the production process that minimizes the waste. To manage the production process while incorporating the attributes of customers into the system, Toyota introduced the lean method of managing chain which has the following principles:
a) The Value
A company needs to know the value capacity of customers in order to direct its resources to the production of affordable products to the customers based on their attributes of what they value as good or bad. The role of the company is the elimination of wastes or constraints that restrict the profits and by so doing, cheaper good that meet the standards of customers are produced at a minimal cost.
b) The Value Stream
The value streams refer to all actions which are necessary at bringing a specific product into use by customers. They include obtaining the raw materials, processing of the raw materials into products and then ensuring that the final product reaches customers in time (Womack and Jones 22). Customer preferences may change with time hence any further delays that will make the product to reach customers when their attributes of good and bad about the product have changed.
c) The Flow
Most of the work in organizations is done through departmentalization batches. These departments work together in order to obtain a final product. If one department fails, then the rest of the departments will be brought to a halt and this will increase wastage (Womack and Jones 23). Therefore the main function of managers at this stage is to ensure that all batches are working. This can be achieved by the motivation of employees so that they take it as their responsibility in ensuring that the departments in which they are working are fully functional. If a manager is able to instill positive thinking about the importance of flow in order to minimize muda (wastes).
The Toyota Company introduced the use of an automatic machine which stopped whenever there was a problem. This topped the movement of bad vehicle parts to the next level which could have otherwise interrupted the “flow” of manufacturing process if allowed move to the next level (Womack and Jones 231)
d) Pull
Pull is a concept that is used to refer to the action of customers wanting the product of the company. In this case, the company should never produce a product that has not been requested by the customers. If a company produces a product that the customers have not requested for, then it will be pushing the product to the customers and will end up making losses. This then implies that whenever a new product is launched, it must have been vetted and approved by the customers for it to fetch profits.
The Toyota Company used a theory Known as Just-in-time. This theory ensured that only those parts were needed by customers were produced avoiding the production of those parts that are for future use which will act as a “push” by making the stores full with unwanted parts by customers(Womack and Jones 231). Theoretical perspective ensured that what was produced was indeed needed by customers a “pull” and this avoided any further wastage.
e) Perfection
Every organization has an aim of moving towards perfection in terms of its production. Perfection is the last step an organization takes and this adds more value to the organization as less time is used during the production process. The most key area of perfection is transparency. This allows the system to be open to all this can easily be used to identify weak areas of the organization and correct on them.
The organization of the Toyota Company had previously hi by an earthquake. This prompted it to create a disaster management team that acts in a manner that mitigates the crisis in case there is a need and this ensured continuous supply of body parts that could otherwise be brought to a halt by the cutoff of the supplies from the mother company (Womack and Jones 233).
Just-in-time also perfected the skill for employees to produce what was only needed by the next process rather than producing in excess of what is not need to the next level (Womack and Jones 332). This reduced wastage downstream therefore increasing perfection. This was also aided the presence of Quality Control Department that protected customers from receiving substandard body parts.

Works Cited
BMA Inc. “Lean Thinking: The Principles of Lean Manufacturing”. The Lean Accounting Leaders. 2008, Web. 27 November,
Womack, James and Daniel, Jones. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth In Your Corporation., Simon & Schuster Inc, 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY, 2003, pp.1-379.