The journal of management defines performance as the accomplishment of tasks as compared to set objectives. Therefore, the performance of a team is the ability of the team to accomplish task as measured against the set objectives.

Module 4 Assignments

In Keun Hwang
14/11/2017
Abraham Lincoln University

1. Assemble the factors that determine the performance of a team.
The journal of management defines performance as the accomplishment of tasks as compared to set objectives. Therefore, the performance of a team is the ability of the team to accomplish task as measured against the set objectives. Though not numerically quantifiable, performance is measurable in a many forms. Karen Lebing of the Performance Management Awards Division identified individual contribution and internal group dynamics as the basic element of measuring team performance. Individual contribution in the performance of a team can easily be evaluated. However, in the context of a team or group set up, the accomplishment of tasks is dependent on an interplay of a factors. When evaluating the performance of team, a myriad of interdependent an intertwined concepts come into play. Nevertheless, laying all other integral concepts at the periphery, we evaluate the simple factors that determine the performance of a team.
A team is a group of individuals, normally members with diverse and complementary skills who link to generate synergy towards a common purpose or towards conducting complex tasks. The group typically consists of members and a leader. Therefore, the contribution of the team members together with the team leader is the first key factor that determines the performance of the team. The contribution and participation of individual team members in terms of intellectual knowledge and volunteering in team projects contributes to the achievement of performance related objectives.
Secondly, the leadership of a team is a determining factor as it plays a critical role to improving the performance of a team. Team leaders could be marketing managers at the office, coaches at the field or any other ideal organizations. Managers ensure that it efficiently meets the team goals and objectives. As a team leader, understanding the interpersonal dynamics of team members and how this influences performance of the team is crucial. Therefore, one of the major tasks bestowed on a leader is to enhance cohesiveness through coordination of team members.
Shared norms of behavior in a team is one of the most crucial factors that determines the performance of a team. Developing shared norms of behavior among team members contributes to how members hold each other accountable for their contribution to the team. When members point out to a member who violates the norms, the team is able to track performance. Anastasia Danilov’s book “Social Norms and Behaviors in Teams”, asserts that team members to a great extent rely on norms to shape behavior. It is through group norms that a team experiences efficiency and eliminates uncertainties in working together. Team norms could be on timely completion of tasks that helps measure individual contribution. Anastasia explains that, individuals within a team act in accordance with norms, their behavior becomes predictable thus ushering in stability to the team.
The diversity of group members in a team determines the effective performance of a team. It is undisputedly clear that teams are homogeneous set ups. The diversity of teams comprising of members from a variety of different racial and cultural backgrounds face the challenge of how members interact with each other. In a research done by Scott E. Page on How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, divergences has been identified to affect problem-solving, creativity and conflict resolution approaches in the diverse groups. It is therefore sufficient to state that in a team, the diverse orientations and backgrounds of members in a team affect performance. This turns out as a challenge and also as a strength as source of motivation depending on the context, place and cultural background. Diversity, whether in the similarities or differences of group members on personal character, education and cultural backgrounds determines how team members interact and balance the needed to deliver performance as a team.
2. Explain why leadership is more difficult in cross-functional teams than in traditional functional teams.
There are two types of teams. Cross-functional teams are groups of individuals who possess varying functional expertise and work together towards a united goal. Whereas traditional functional teams are functional teams or the traditional corporate groups of individuals who share functional expertise and work towards shared objectives. .
Leadership in cross-functional teams is difficult compared to functional teams due to various reasons. Cross-functional team members have skewed priorities. In an organizational set up, the focus of team members is on the performance of tasks that have instant reward on them within the cross functional objectives. If the performance of a task or project does not deliver result directly beneficial to their performance assessment then the work produced by the cross functional team is not their priority. In addition, communication across cross functional teams is not effective. This is because, leaders face the challenge of coordinating team members across the functional team. The lack of an effective communication system curtails the ability of the team leaders to respond to the different management needs of communication, coordination, and controlling.
Unlike in traditional functional teams where standard procedures are done manually, cross functional teams suffer a technological disconnects. This obstructs the leader’s ability to efficiently coordinate the team member across the board. Technology disconnect obstruct progress in cross functional teams. In addition. leading cross-functional teams of people from various departments, comes with challenges of decision making process. There is also the confusion and duplication of roles and responsibility among team members as the team become huge.
3. List and explain the things a leader can do to improve decision making process in a group meeting.
Effective decision making process is a source of productivity and improvement for the organization. Poor decision making approaches is a product of lack of proper coordination between the leadership and employees in projects and meetings. Meetings support group decision making activities. As a leader, on needs to improve group decision making process to enhance the value of the decision generated while sat the same time improving productivity. The initial choice for a leader is to make collaborative decisions. Collaborative decisions integrate the leader’s and participant’s decision success criteria, and guides the contribution and participation level to achieve decision the implementation. Depending on the value of the decision, available time and level of understanding. A leader oversees the functioning of the group as well as make decisions for the group.
Dialectical inquiry is an effective technique that group leaders apply to debate on the suggested alternatives. It is done through the group leader selecting groups of opposite view and deliberate on all the raised alternatives, this is method ensures the groups have enough time to consider both positives and negatives in every alternative. This ensures group participation in the decision-making process.
There are friendlier group decision making processes such as nominal group technique that can be used by leaders in decision making. This approach is a group decision making process that has been designed in a manner that the group leaders assigns members to come up with comprehensive list of new ideas and suggestion in writing. The members of the group usually submit the ideas individually drafted in their own privacy. After the submissions, they are now listed on a board to show if all alternatives are captured, and once this is done they can now be discussed by the group members.
Delphi technique is identified as a group decision making approach that is employed when members of the group are in different locations and can’t meet to discuss the alternatives, hence the leader take the responsibility of coming up with alternatives in the progressive stage and submitting findings through electronic media (Bakay, 2011)
4. Outline the major performance determinants for organizations.
There are a number of determinants of organizational performance. First information technology has been identified as a critical determinant of performance. The adoption of standard soft wares such as the integrated Enterprise resource planning (ERP) has facilitated the provision of integrated transaction and access to information across business functions (Wu & Wang, 2006). Implementation of ERP software system has a positive effect on organizational performance.
Innovation is also a significantly contributing factor in increasing market share through allowing the organization to produce and sale numerous products to clients. In essence, innovation works hand in hand with technology required to carrying out activities.
The impact of leadership on organizational performance are obvious. Managerial practices have a significant impact on organizational performance measured in terms of profitability and equity. On the other hand, employees play an important role in organizational performance. Management decisions may either contribute to positive or detrimental effects on the organization’s performance. According to Hosmer (2001), attracting and retaining employees is critical in achieving a competitive advantage and organizational performance.
5. Describe the guidelines for the following
External monitoring
External monitoring is a process that involves a series of steps. It starts with design and planning of the project. Secondly, is the process involves enhancing the decision-making process through strictly following the designed project. In addition, the external monitoring guide line ought to recognize key indicators and offer statistical data that will enable the objective evaluation on the impact of the project. It is important to measure social and environmental performance results based on the potential consequences of the project, (Thomson, 2012)
B strategy formation
B strategy formation refers to the process through which organizations choose accurate path of action and guidelines. The process involves setting the organization goals and objectives. At this stage, the aim of this strategy is to achieve both short-term and long term goals. The evaluation of the business environment is equally important as such environmental assessment helps study economic and industrial environment to the organization. This is critical in reviewing the organizational positioning within the market. B strategy formation allows the organization to set realistic targets that can be achieved during in the long-term. Finally, performance analysis helps the organization to determine the effectiveness of the implemented strategy and the steps to take to ensure effective running of the business operations (Thomas, 2015)

References
Adobor, H. (2004). High performance management of shared‐managed joint venture teams: contextual and socio‐dynamic factors. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 10(3/4), 65-76.
Cui, Z. (2015). Decision Making in Cross-Functional Teams: The Role of Decision Power*. Decision Sciences, 47(3), 492-523.
Bakay, A., Huang, J., & Huang, W. (2011). Group Decision Making Process and Group Decision Quality: Moderator Effect of Mutual Interest. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Ho, J., Wu, A., & Wu, S. (2014). Performance measures, consensus on strategy implementation, and performance: Evidence from the operational-level of organizations. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 39(1), 38-58.
Thomson, V. (2012). Monitoring performance of external quality control. Pathology, 44, S98. Thomas, L., & Ambrosini, V. (2015). Materializing Strategy: The Role of Comprehensiveness and Management Controls in Strategy Formation in Volatile Environments. British Journal of Management, 26, S105-S124.