The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth and supported by gravity.

The Atmosphere: Air, Weather And Climate
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The Atmosphere: Air, Weather And Climate
The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth and supported by gravity. It produces pressure and allows the presence of liquid water on the Earth’s surface, which keeps the surface warm through retention of heat, ultraviolet retention, solar radiation, and moderation of temperature extremes amid daytime and night.
Concepts
The gaseous mass of the atmosphere is made up of Nitrogen (78% ), and Oxygen (21% ). Others like inert gases account for the remaining percentage. There are four layers of the atmosphere; Stratosphere, Troposphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere. Heat is conveyed between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere through conduction, radiation, and convection. Ocean currents carry out the substantial part in sending the warmth toward the axis of the globe. Gulf stream is significant currents that transport incredible quantities of heat to the poles and add to the existence of several forms of weather portents. Greenhouse gases help in trapping heat, therefore, moderate temperatures. Carbon dioxide is one of the components of Greenhouse gases. It is generated by the volcanic explosion, respiration, burning fossil fuels and decay of vegetation.
Methane originates from putrefaction, nitrous oxide from bacteria, ozone from atmospheric processes and chlorofluorocarbons made by humans.
Atmospheric contamination comprises of elements and chemicals released into the air. Natural pollutants include dust squalls, volcanoes, and organic decay. Artificial contamination raises concerns because it can be controlled by acceptable levels. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide are the impurities freed into the atmosphere by humans. The primary cause of non-natural pollution is the sweltering of relic fuels, such as oil, coal, and gas, in homesteads, industries, and motor vehicle. Air pollution components can be primary that is, they are put directly into the air or secondary which amount from chemical processes. There is an outcry for actions to combat the global impact of air pollution, notably climate alteration.
Terminologies. Terminologies encountered include International Standard Atmosphere which defines atmospheric pressure. Coriolis effect is the deflection of the wind due to the earth’s rotation. The slow rotation towards the east swerves air to the right and left.Photosynthesis is the process used by plants to make food by incorporating carbon dioxide as a component and releasing oxygen which is used by animals during respiration.
Figures. The distance between the layers of the atmosphere ranges from 12km to 700 km and the typical atmospheric pressure measures at approximately 101325 pascals at the sea level. The mass is distributed between 50% below 5.6 km (18,000 ft), 90 percent below 16 km (52,000 ft) and 99.99997 percent which is below 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft)
The most interesting thing is learning that apart from the main layers of the atmosphere there are other additional layers. They include the ionosphere, exosphere and the magnetosphere that traps electrons and protons making two bands above the globe. Most important thing learned is that non-natural pollution makes the highest proportion of all air pollution, and there is a need to reduce it.
Questions
1. What is the temperature of the earth?
2. Is there a substantial difference between heat and temperature?
3. Elaborate the interaction of the atmosphere with land and oceans.
4. What are the differences between a cyclone and a hurricane? Explain.