The aim of this manual is to guide writers in constructing quality essay papers.

2013
Zero Plag

Victor Ogega

[ACADEMIC WRITING GUIDE]
Improve your writing skills


Table of Contents
Overview 2
Sample essay 2
CHAPTER 1GRAMMAR 2
CHAPTER 2: SOURCES 2
1-Plagiarism 2
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism 2
CHAPTER3: PROOFREADING 2
CHAPTER 4 FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS 2
Positive feedback and bonuses from satisfied clients 2
1-Structure of an introduction 2
2-Structure of Conclusion 2
3-Visual Aids 2
4- SPECIALIZATION IN DISCIPLINES 2
Essays Examples 2
CHAPTER 5 WRITING STYLES 2


Overview
The aim of this manual is to guide writers in constructing quality essay papers. Through highlighting the sections that companies such as Uvocorp, Essaywriters e.t.c evaluate, writers can confidently write papers. For a writer to be termed as a quality writer, he/she must know what is expected of him or her. The manual contains chapters, each highlighting one responsibility that the writer ought to analyze. Writing standards are evaluated by two parties, the research company and the customer who wants a paper written. The research company is the first evaluator and the customer follows later on. The figure below shows the various elements analyzed by both parties. Poor quality essays that do not meet the expectations of customers are returned and the writer is expected to make changes where necessary or sometimes re-do the whole paper! Revisions are a common but they need not be a problem, read the manual, and practice the tips. The most important fact new writers must understand is that the customers check for few aspects in each paper submitted. Knowing them will make the writing experience fun and stress free. Chapter 4 discusses the aspects customers look for.

Research Company

Customer

Final Essay

Sample essay
Document name Order-45678921
Type of Service Writing from scratch
Deadline 5 hours
Academic Level University
Subject Management
Title The Organization System- Culture and Human Resource
Sources 3
Paper Format APA
# of Pages: 3
Spacing Double
# of words 825
# of slides None
Pay 600
Paper Details *Human resource management is a key component in any organization. Evaluate the role of resource-based theory in human resource management. In an organization of your choice, address the role of organizational culture. Analyze implication of applied requirements on success of organizations. Also suggest possible improvements to the human resource process. *

The Organization System- Culture and Human Resource

Name:

Institution:

Date:

The Organization System- Culture and Human Resource
Introduction
According to Andrew (1998), human resource management involves handling employee requirements and expectations in an efficient manner that ensures the organization’s objectives are met. Duties such as employee interviews recruitment, training and payment are addressed in human resource management. There are theories employed that analyze the processes and results of different techniques employed in human resource management. Resource based theory of a firm applies strategic decision-making policies that place emphasis in human resource as a tool for gaining a competitive edge in a business environment.
Resource-based Theory of the Firm Requirements
For the resource-based theory to produce desired results, certain requirements have to be met in the human resource environment. Four requirements will be discussed. First, the human resource section needs to provide value to the firm. There must be a demand for different types of skill sets. With existence of the demand, the management can bring in different types of workers varying in skill sets to fill the demand. This workforce will provide value to the firm since the labor is required.
The second requirement is maintaining unique resources. For the business to gain a competitive edge through human resource, only the elite should be recruited. A workforce that has highly talented individuals will have a competitive advantage over other firms therefore, it is important that the criteria for recruitment be of high standards. The third requirement is for the internal resources to avoid substitutes of mechanisms that can be developed by competing firms. Take for instance a company that has a great pool of human resources that provide a competitive advantage over other firms.
Should a less established brand suddenly develop technology that is able to exceed output of major firms, then it will gain some advantage. Companies need to employ strategies in human resource that cannot be substituted. The fourth requirement is application of human resource practices that cannot be duplicated. Inside a well-structured human resource framework, the organizational culture analyses the specific requirements and goals of the organization and cannot be duplicated (Wright & McMahan, 1992 P. 310)
Organization Assessment
My organization is an IT firm that specializes in manufacture of digital media devices. The organization has strong work ethics and organization culture is emphasized. The result of this is that the human resource body provides a competitive advantage over other IT firms. The organizational culture aligns the human resource with the company’s goals and the values that the staff portrays are a clear reflection of the firm’s beliefs. Competing firms cannot duplicate the human resource culture since it is customized for the individual firm requirements (Andrew, 1998 P. 14)
The IT firm has unique distribution channels for its products, which ensure that the products reach the consumers within the shortest time possible. The company has arrangements with transport companies whereby they share resources and in turn, transport charges translated to the consumers are minimal. The unique practice invoked by the human resource section places the company steps ahead of its competition. The digital media devices however are similar to products manufactured by competing firms and although slight modifications are made, the production process is not imitable.
Competing firms can practice reverse engineering and adapt the exact production process that the human resource body utilizes. The practices of the human resource section of the IT firm cannot be substituted by other practices or technologies applied by competing firms. This is because all competing firms use similar technologies in their organizations and the production process cannot be substituted.
Implication of Applied Requirements on Success of Organization
Synchronizing organizational culture with business strategies has enabled the company to ensure that its practices are not duplicated by other firms and even if a competing firm tries to adapt the practices employed it would not meet its specific requirements. Unique distribution channels minimize transport costs relating to lower prices charged to consumers. The organization and the consumers are cushioned due to this and it creates a sense of consumer loyalty boosting the organization’s sales figures. The company’s products are exposed to imitation, as the production process employed by the IT firm is not fully protected by copyright laws.
The result is losses suffered by the company due to existence of similar products in market. Majority of the brands that manufacture digital media devices use similar technologies and share a common production process. The IT firm I work in faces no threat of substitution of practices applied in the production process.
Human Resource Process Improvements
Though the human resource process in the IT Company utilizes most of the requirements discussed in this essay, improvements can always be made to keep the company ahead of its competition. The company can adapt human resource processes that are imitable to ensure that they fully benefit from the human resource competitive advantages according to the resource based theory of the firm. An example of such improvement can be displayed in adoption of production processes that distinguishes the company’s products from others by customizing the finished products according to consumer preferences (Rosenthal & Masarech, 2003 P.10)
.

References
Andrew D. B. (1998). Organizational Culture. P. 16-21 Financial Times
Rosenthal J., & Masarech, M. A. (2003). High performance cultures: How values can drive business results. Journal of Organizational Excellence, 22, 3-18.
Wright, P. M., & McMahan, G. C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18, 295-320.

END OF THIS ESSAY


CHAPTER 1GRAMMAR
Basic grammar is required in academic writing. Do not be tempted to use fancy words that you do not really know their meaning. Over 80% of the papers you will write are academic papers that will be graded; therefore, it is your responsibility as a writer to ensure the customer gets good grades. Benefits such as bonuses and few revisions are good reasons to improve your writing skills. Adopt the following rules
 Do not use first person pronouns in your writing. 1st person pronouns such as I, we, us damage the credibility of your essay. Once they are used, whatever argument you had raised seems like your opinion rather than facts. Compare the two examples.
Example1: I concluded that secondhand smoke is a leading cause of cancer among children.
Example2: The research evaluated that secondhand smoke is a leading cause of cancer among children.
The second example is more believable than the first.
Example3: I interpret the results as evidence of global warming. [wrong]
Example4: The results indicate evidence of global warming. [Correct]
Example5: We administered the questionnaire….
Example6: The questionnaire was administered…
 Do not use rhetorical questions in your essay unless specific instructions require you to.
 Do not use emotional language in essays. Emotional writing can be described as emotional outbursts in essays, where a writer portrays his/her feelings towards a certain issue.
Example1: George demonstrated his stupidity when he failed to attend the meeting.
The writer expressed his opinion inappropriately. The mistake is similar to the use of 1st person pronouns. The writer makes his presence in the paper known. You are to remain subjective in essay writing. That means that in presenting your arguments, the reader should not be aware of your presence in the paper. Take for instance a correct version of the above example
Example2: George risked his career when he failed to attend the meeting.
 Do not use apostrophes in any essay. Words such as we’ll, don’t and can’t are unacceptable in essay writing.
 Make only one space after commas, semicolons, colons and full stops.
 Do not capitalize common nouns. Common nouns are simple words that name people, places, things or ideas but are not ACTUAL NAMES of people, place or things.
Common Nouns Proper Nouns
girl
state
country
war
south east(direction) Mary
Colorado
the United States
World War II
The South ( particular section of the country)

Only capitalize a common noun if they are the first word in a sentence
 Do not use Latin abbreviations in essays such as pg, i.e., e.g., e.t.c. Use the full terms such as that is, for example.
 Minimize use of passive voice in your writing-The active and passive voices are two voices of verbs. In the active voice, the subject does the action; for example,
The dog bites the apple
In the passive voice, the subject does not do the action, but the action is done to the subject; for example
The apple was bitten by the dog.
To correct the grammatical error, make the necessary changes as you proofread the document using Microsoft word grammar checker, which highlights usage of passive voice.
 Avoid using colloquial expressions-colloquialism describes use words or phrases acceptable in informal language but not in proper English. Slang cannot be used in academic writing. Take for instance the following phrases that are commonly used in conversations
Example1: The baby calf was standing right underneath its mother.
Baby calf- improper English
Example2: The lady completed her exams successfully.
Lady-improper English. Never use lady in place of woman
Example3: The old man kinda looked like Chuck Norris.
Kinda is an example of slang unacceptable in formal English
Example4: The goat took a dump inside the hallway.
‘took a dump’-improper language
 Never start a sentence with words like As such, And, But….
 Never use gender specific words for general meaning. Take for instance the sentences below
To solve the problem, we need a policeman [wrong]
To solve the problem, we need a police officer [correct]
 Do not repeat words frequently within the same paragraph. You can use pronouns or synonyms to vary words.
 Concerning tense, use present tense as the main tense in your writing unless paper instructions require you to do otherwise.
 Sentences should be short. One sentence should at most take 2lines in a paragraph.
 Never use ‘so as to’ when you mean ‘to’
 Avoid generalization in writing. Generalization refers to the use of vague words in research to argue a point. The aim of any research paper is to argue for or against a set of ideas. Terms such as all, every, everyone, none can easily be used to account for data in a vague manner. Take for instance the sentences below.
1. All countries in the Middle East are against Israel. [Which ones?]
2. All pregnant women do not smoke cigarettes [inaccurate]
3. All commercially prepared pet food is dangerous. [inaccurate]
4. Marketing will solve the problem for an organization. [How?]
Generalization is a lazy habit employed by writers trying to prove a point. Do the research, collect and use real data such as percentages and charts to argue your case.
Use of semi colon & colon
Semicolon
Semicolons can be used as connectors of two independent clauses and as super commas.
1) As a connector – an independent clause refers to a sentence that can stand on its own.
Twelve workers started the project [independent clause]
They were through by five [independent clause]
[independent clause] ; [independent clause]
Examples
= Twelve workers started the project; they were through by five.
This could be a complete sentence; this could be another one.
Five boys ventured into business; only one persevered.
The last example has an independent clause ‘only one persevered’. The clause can indeed stand on its own.
Note: you do not use a semicolon to connect two complete sentences that have been joined by a conjunction.
Five boys ventured into business but only one preserved. No semicolon
2) As a Super comma
Take for instance a sentence with a number of items separated with a comma such as
We visited Page Page, Curitiba and George.
Now add information to the sentence by identifying the country the regions are located.
We visited Page Page, Western Samoa; Western Samoa; Curitiba, Brazil; and St. George, Utah
The trio’s birthdays are November 10, 1946; December 7, 1948; and October 31, 1950.
Uses of colons
A colon is easy to use. It simply introduces. It can introduce just about anything. A colon introduces many concepts such as a word, a phrase, a sentence, a quotation, a list.
Col on introducing a word
Joe has only one thing on his mind: profit.
Colon introducing a phrase
Joe has only one thing on his mind: his stock portfolio
Colon introducing a sentence
Joe has only one thing on his mind: he wants to get rich
Colon introducing a list
Joe has only one thing on his mind: stocks, bonds, and certificates of deposits.
Tip-To identify where a colon is necessary use the word namely. Almost everywhere a colon is used it can be replaced by the word ‘namely’. If the sentence makes sense if the word namely is used to introduce, then most likely the colon can be used. Note that when a colon is used in introducing a word, phrase, sentence or list it there is a short pause to emphasize what is about to be introduced.
Joe has only one thing on his mind: he wants to get rich
Joe has only one thing on his mind [PAUSE] he wants to get rich

Differentiating Semicolon and Colon Use
Semicolon Colon
-Connects two independent clauses or sentences
-Can act as a super comma in items within a list -Introduces a word, phrase, sentence or list
-Symbolizes a pause after a sentence in an effort to emphasize what is to be introduced
-Can be replaced by the word ‘namely’
CHAPTER 2: SOURCES
In academic writing the sources you use can make or break your essay. Bogus sources have information that is questionable. Blogs, Wikipedia, helium and businessballs.com are examples of sources that should not be used. In most of the essays that you will do, customers will not specify which sources you are to get information from. Where no specific sources are mentioned, use any of the following
NOTE: Key words in search engines are the words we input in google, bing search tabs
1. 1-Online Journal articles: just type ‘key words journal’
2. 2-Scholary material- in search engine type ‘scholarly’ next to the key words.
3. 3-Online Books- click more in Google search tab and select books. Enter key words on search engine and all results will be books sources
4. 5-News websites- click more in Google search tab and select news. Enter key words on search engine and all results will be news sources
5. 6-Websites with .edu, .gov [educational and governmental sites] have credible information and can be used
Free online libraries that are useful can be found in the links below
http://archive.org/details/cornell
http://www.sidestone.com/library/
http://www.homeworkla.org/
Referencing sources will be discussed in writing styles
Do not use outdated sources try and keep your sources recent 2000-2012, unless paper instructions force you to use old materials as sources.
1-Plagiarism
Plagiarism can be defined as the intentional or unintentional use of another person’s ideas without acknowledging where you found the material. It is a crime where you take credit for information that was not originally yours. When a sequence of words following each other in your essay match exactly with a sequence of words published in a journal or magazine in the internet you will be charged with plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious violation unacceptable by ALL freelance writing companies. Writers have to learn how to avoid plagiarism offences. While anti plagiarism softwares are useful tools for correcting plagiarism, writers need to practice paraphrasing and limit reliance on anti-plagiarism software. The company we submit our papers to uses Turnitin as their anti-plagiarism detection software. NEVER use turnitin to check for plagiarism. Some plagiarism offences may be undetected by grammarly.com and be detected by Turnitin, therefore writers cannot solely depend on grammarly.com.
In my experience, paraphrasing effectively will make your papers plagiarism free and I do not use anti-plagiarism software because I gained confidence in my work.
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
If you have trouble keeping your papers plagiarism free, try reading from your sources and writing down major arguments in a piece of paper.
1. The major arguments can be noted down in point. The arguments may be information such as dates, names, ratios, and other facts.
2. After you have collected the main ideas and understand the issues mentioned in the source, you can proceed to write down the essay in a draft paper using your own words. Refer only to the facts you wrote down to force you to use your own words when writing the essay.
3. You can then type the material in a word document after you are done. Through practice, you will gain confidence in paraphrasing and learn to work with limited reference to anti-plagiarism software.
Google plagiarism and how to avoid it for more information.

CHAPTER3: PROOFREADING
Before you submit any paper, proofread it to ensure that there are no grammatical or stylistics errors. There are several changes that you will make in your word application settings. The default changes will ensure that grammatical errors unacceptable in academic writing are highlighted and corrected accordingly.
Use the following link to read few tips concerning grammar and the spell check feature in Microsoft word http://www.uvocorp.com/dl/Using%20GrammarStyle%20Checker.pdf
MAKE THE FOLLOWING SETTINGS ADJUSTMENTS IN YOUR WORD APPLICATION AS SHOWN IN THE LINK BELOW http://www.uvocorp.com/dl/Checking%20your%20GrammarStyle%20checker.pdf
Common mistakes using the spellcheck feature in Microsoft word.
Before selecting the change tab when a grammatical error is highlighted, ensure that the suggestion in the text box can indeed be used is in context. Sometimes the changes suggested are indeed correctly spelt but when used in the particular sentence do not make sense. Such incidences are called typos whereby words are used out of context.
Example: The dog murdered the paper.
The sentence seems grammatically correct and even the grammar checker cannot spot the error but the word murdered should have been replaced by ‘destroyed’. The word murdered is a typo in the above example.

CHAPTER 4 FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS
The aim of this chapter is to guide writers on how to avoid revisions. Revisions mostly occur when essay instructions are not covered according to a customer’s preference. To ensure that a paper satisfies a customer it has to meet certain standards. Breadth, depth, clarity and organization define a paper’s ability to impress a customer.
1) Breath- Are ALL the issues discussed in the paper?
If paper instructions require you to discuss more than one issue, then you have to be careful on the attention each issue gets. Ideally, the attention should be even for the number of questions. Take for instance the following paper instructions
Starting up a company is not as easy as most entrepreneurs assume. What factors need to be considered before implementing a business idea? Contingency measures serve as backups should any difficulty occur in executing a business idea, what contingency plans can be set up for an IT firm? Explain how the contingency measures identified serve as back ups. External factors affect the day to day running of any business, which external triggers affect an IT firm?
1-What factors need to be considered before implementing a business idea?
2- Contingency measures serve as backups should any difficulty occur in executing a business idea, what contingency plans can be set up for an IT firm?
3- Explain how the contingency measures identified serve as backups.
4- External factors affect the day-to-day running of any business, which external triggers affect an IT firm?
There are 4 issues that need to be discussed in the paper. To ensure that each issue receives appropriate attention, this is what I do. For a five page essay (1375 words), if each of the four issues was discussed in roughly 300 words, i.e 300*4= 1200 words, the remaining 175 words can be used for introduction and conclusion. The aim of the calculation used is to ensure that all issues are discussed appropriately.
 Note that some paper instructions specify how issues should be dicussed e.g each question should be discussed in one page (275 words). Where clear instructions are provided, just follow them to the letter.
2)Depth- is each issues discussed in the appropriate DEPTH?
Critical analysis is required in answering essay questions. You are required to demonstrate deep understanding of the issues addressed. Support your arguments with facts such as figures, charts and percentages Take for instance the following example of an essay question
Starting up a company is not as easy as most entrepreneurs assume. What factors need to be considered before implementing a business idea?
The above essay requires a writer to research on factors that influence the implementation process in a business start up. Once the factors are identified, the writer should expound on each factor clearly showing why the factor needs to be considered before the idea is implemented. How does the factor affect the implementation stage?
Paraphrasing the material from the source shows the customer that you have understood the topic and that a critical perspective was utilized to add on already existent literature regarding the paper topic.
Consider the two essay instructions below.
Title: Consumer safety in Automotive Industry
Sources: 3
Discipline: Business Studies
Category: High School
Pages:3 (825words)
Style: MLA
Title: Consumer safety in Automotive Industry
Sources: 3
Discipline: IT
Category: College level 3-4
Pages:3 (825words)
Style: MLA

The topic is same in both papers, but the content in the your essay should be different because one relates to Business Studies while another relates to IT. The first essay may discuss the need for prioritizing customer safety and financial/business impacts of proper or poor safety features in the automobile industry. The second paper can discuss the technology applied in customer safety systems in automobile industry.
The two examples show how easy it is for a writer to get off topic if he/she does not consider which subject a paper falls under. Before you start to write your paper, ensure you know which discipline the paper is under.
One paper is for a customer in high school while another is for a customer in college level. Writers should consider the academic level in how they write their papers.

3) Clarity-Are the arguments easy to follow. Does the writer express him/herself clearly?
Papers that are organized well make it easy for the customer to identify your arguments and the justification or evidence you have presented. Customers will not hand in papers for revisions if they are able to follow how you have presented your arguments.
Each idea should be stated in a paragraph and expounded on. The next idea should be introduced in a new paragraph.
A sentence should not exceed two lines in a paragraph. Each paragraph can be 6 or 7 lines long. At least one in-text citation in a paragraph.
Micro-organization describes writing down a draft that identifies the issues that will be discussed in the paper and how they follow each other. It serves as a basic draft.
An example of micro-organization is shown below. The paper instruction are provided
Title: Consumer safety in Automotive Industry
Sources: 3
Discipline: IT
Category: College level 3-4

Pagses: 5 (1375 words)
Style: MLA
Introduction- roughly 100 words. Brief description of the issues that will be discussed in the paper. Brief description of the current technological trends in customer safety features within vehicle manufacturing companies.
Body- State and expound on the technology utilized by different automobile companies with the aim of ensuring driver safety. Compare the different technological systems and critically asses them. (about 1075 words)
Conclusion- discuss findings and suggest future trends that may develop due to factors such as completion, social responsibility such as global warming, financial and economic factors. (200 words)
Positive feedback and bonuses from satisfied clients
Customers who pay for essays to be written are often lazy students who want someone to do their assignments for them. Some do not have the time to complete a series of assignments so they reduce their workload by paying writers to do a few. Some just want the paper as a tutoring aid that will help them write the paper.
Regardless of their reasons for choosing the writing service, majority DON’T know what the assignment should be like in terms of content. They can however tell if a paper is likely to give them a high grade or not. Knowing what they look for is vital.
The items that clients look at include the introduction, conclusion and visual aids. The body should have clarity where each paragraph explores an argument. A basic flow of ideas between paragraphs is recommended. Google efficient transition methods between paragraphs

1-Structure of an introduction
• Background of study (context of study…current issues surrounding the topic)
• The problem (The purpose of research) The aim of the essay. State clearly what the essay is addressing
• The proposed solution. The writer declares position taken here. It is also referred to as the thesis statement
Sample Introduction 1
Causes of Global Warming and Possible Solutions
Global warming is an environmental concern that has received heated debate by all leaders all over the world. The international challenge has been in recommending sustainable intervention strategies (Background of study…current issues). The research aims at highlighting the root causes of global warming. Through identifying causes, realistic solutions can be developed (Purpose of research). Global warming affects the entire ecosystem therefore all political systems, business units and individuals need to respond appropriately (Proposed solution….Writer declares position).

Sample Introduction 2
Developing Ethical Leadership in Business
Moral responsibility perspectives in business have resulted in ethical leadership development. There have been significant changes over the last ten years regarding the role companies play in society (Background of study…current issues).The purpose of the research is to evaluate the role of ethics in business in an effort to improve decision making structures (Purpose of research). Values such as honesty and integrity have been associated with outstanding performance in business therefore organizations need to incorporate relevant ethical theories in management of operations (Proposed solution….Writer declares position).
2-Structure of Conclusion
The conclusion section in every essay is more than just a summary of main arguments discussed. The conclusion provides writers with an opportunity to express a critical outlook regarding the concepts in the essay. An example is touching on possible future trends regarding the essay subject, after the brief summary is provided.
3-Visual Aids
Visual aids are picture representations in support of arguments. Examples are charts, tables and graphs. They can help provide a convincing argument. After inserting a visual aid in a word document make sure you reference it. You can Google how to do that. The pictures are however not considered in the word count of an essay, so they cannot be used to fill up pages in your paper.

4- SPECIALIZATION IN DISCIPLINES
Writers are encouraged to select subjects they would love to work on. The full list of subjects is provided below.
• biology (and other Life Sciences)
• Chemistry
• Composition
• Engineering
• Family and consumer science
• Film & Theater studies • Human Resources Management (HRM)
• Mathematics
• Music
• Nursing
• Statistics
• Technology•

Essays Examples
Essay Example 1

Document name Order #: 4115195

Type of Service Original, Paper Writing from Scratch
Deadline 7 hours
Academic Level College
Subject Ethics
Title
Sources 0
Paper Format APA
# of Pages: 6
Spacing Double
# of words 1650
# of slides 0
Pay Ksh 900
Paper Details Please read the text in document

[TEXT IN DOCUMENT]
One of the most beneficial exercises in a course exploring ethics is to develop a paper that allows you the opportunity to create connections between your personal view of ethics and the theory under discussion. The nature of ethical decision-making is recognition, analysis and resolution. We often don’t make a decision because it’s ethical, but rather, because it makes sense from our personal view of the situation. That is, ethical decisions happen “after the fact” as we begin to see the actual implications of the decision.

With this in mind, your paper should explore current ethical issues in the workplace that are relevant to your current career or the career that you are preparing to pursue. Your task is to begin to explore the possible issues within your workplace and choose one to focus on throughout the course as you begin to build your final paper. Please consider the following as possible approaches for this final paper:

Illustrate the impact of organizational goals and objectives, structure, culture, environment, ethics policies, and incentive systems on ethical behavior within an organization.
Evaluate and revise an ethics program to increase ethical behavior within an organizational environment.
Create and systematically apply a defensible ethical moral framework to a contemporary ethics issue. To systematically apply the ethical moral framework, you must use the framework consistently as you describe the ethics issue. Explore the issue using the framework you create. HINT: This is done through the application of one of the theories we read about in Module 1.
The final paper is your opportunity to delve into a topic within the framework of ethics that you find interesting, based on your approved topic and thesis statement.

Focus your paper on the connection between your topic and ethics theory. You must use your approved topic. Possible topics include, but are not limited to:

Employment issues (sexual harassment, diversity, discrimination, etc.)
Performance appraisal and compensation
Terminations
Privacy
Financial and accounting measures
Using reward systems to enhance ethical behavior and/or reinforce unethical behavior
Communicating ethics
Corporate social responsibility

You must support your views. While your opinions are important, they are not sufficient for a discussion for this type of paper. The academic connections are crucial.
The paper should be 5-8 pages in length (not including the title and reference page).
The paper should follow APA 6th Edition guidelines for all formatting:
1” margins
12-point Times New Roman font
Double-spaced
Use your full-sentence outline to build the paper. This creates the blueprint for the final paper.
The paper should have the following sections:
Introduction: State what you are going to tell me in the body of the paper. This is a synopsis of the point of the paper. The thesis statement resides here.
Body of the paper: This is the place where you pull your research together and develop your points. It should include:
An overview of the ethics theory you are using.
A connection of the theory to your topic.
A discussion about the impact of the topic and theory.

Conclusion: Restate what you have told me. This is your last opportunity to make your point, answer your question, or argue a perspective.
Don’t forget the importance of the transitions between paragraphs and sections. I should be able to read the last sentence of one paragraph and the first sentence of the next paragraph and see the connection. HINT: This is a good way to test whether you have effective transitions.
Grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph structure matter: Spend time editing your paper. This means that you need to at least give yourself a three-day cooling off period between finishing the paper and editing the paper. This really does make a difference in what you catch and correct.

STEP ONE- ensure you understand the instructions
APA 6 PAGES (1650) 0 SOURCES REQUIRED
7 hours deadline (last 30 minutes should be for proofreading)
The items highlighted in yellow, green indicate the direction the paper ought to take. The items in pink are the topic and approach I chose. It is o.k to spend a lot of time understanding the instructions since getting step one wrong means that the whole paper will be off topic and will not be accepted by the customer.
In the instructions:
1-The nature of ethical decision-making is recognition, analysis and resolution.
2-your paper should explore current ethical issues in the workplace that are relevant to your current career or the career that you are preparing to pursue.
3-Your task is to begin to explore the possible issues within your workplace and choose one to focus on throughout the course as you begin to build your final paper.
4-Please consider the following as possible approaches for this final paper:
5-Focus your paper on the connection between your topic and ethics theory.
6-Corporate social responsibility (topic I chose)
7-Evaluate and revise an ethics program to increase ethical behavior within an organizational environment. (Approach I chose)
I chose to write about Corporate Social Responsibility (topic). I am supposed to connect the topic with an ethics theory. Ethics theory is subdivided to a number of ethical perspectives such as utilitarian theory. I chose to connect my topic with the utilitarian perspective. In the instructions, there is a section highlighted in green where the customer requires me to consider one of the approaches given for the final paper. I chose Evaluate and revise an ethics program to increase ethical behavior within an organizational environment.
STEP 2: Now that I have the full instructions analyzed I can do my research on
1. Corporate social responsibility
2. Utilitarian theory
3. Evaluate and revise an ethics program to increase ethical behavior within an organizational environment
STEP 3: Micro Organization
Introduction (120 words)
• Background of study (context of study…current issues surrounding the topic)
• The problem (The purpose of research) The aim of the essay. State clearly what the essay is addressing
• The proposed solution. The writer declares position taken here. It is also referred to as the thesis statement
Body (1300 words)
The trick is to understand the three items and write a paper about how ethics (utilitarian theory) is connected to corporate social responsibility issues in the workplace. Talking about how an ethics program fits in the essay is a plus; you can mention its relevance, importance, benefits and limitations in improving corporate social responsibility. The measure guarantees a comprehensive essay. You will NEVER have to re-write papers if you follow instructions to the letter. Read my essay and see how I have answered the papers instructions
Conclusion I chose a longer than usual conclusion (230)

Corporate Social Responsibility
Name:
Institution:

Corporate Social Responsibility
Introduction
Corporate social responsibility represents the internal channels that are pre-set in order to align operations to a defined belief. The concept applied tries to ensure that the operations handled by the organization do not harm its environment. The environment refers to government, customers, stakeholders, staff, public and the ecosystem. The aim of the paper is to analyze ethical concerns in business with particular reference to decision-making tools that determine a corporate social responsibility system. Through evaluation of the principles and values that shape what is considered ethical, decision-making perspectives can be analyzed and necessary changes applied where possible. The paper utilizes an ethical program in an organization as a tool for evaluation. Ethical theories provide companies with appropriate decision-making resources in utilizing conscientious operations systems.
Ethics Perspectives in Corporate Social Responsibility
Individuals make decisions based on their own perspectives, but ethics education highlights the different perspectives that exist. Conflicts among employees are reduced significantly once tolerance is encouraged. Though staff may not agree on certain issues, every idea is accepted and analyzed rationally. Ethics dynamics in corporate structures serve two purposes. They enable an organization to coexist well with its environment and enable any company to maximize goal realization. Since employees have different perspectives regarding moral concerns, a well-communicated culture integrated with social responsibility guidelines of a firm aligns everyone with the mission and vision statement. Theories in ethics vary depending on subject prioritized.
Utilitarianism describes a concept whereby right and wrong is determined by outcome. An outcome that is considered positive to the majority of its audience and possesses least undesirable attributes is embraced in the utilitarian perspective. The idea seems to prioritize action over character. Application of this ethical perspective in organizations demonstrates decision-making practices whereby strategies employed to achieve the set goals and objectives have to pass the majority rule. Any actions approved a company have to influence a desirable event to the majority of the stakeholders. A case analysis of this theory in business is demonstrated by Wal-Mart.
Industrialization in the twentieth century led to environmental degradation and efforts to generate sustainability in business operations have only been considered when effects such as global warming reached critical levels. Wal-Mart utilizes three concepts in its sustainability program: to utilize renewable energy, to generate no waste and to provide its target market with products that do not harm the ecosystem. Social responsibility perspectives in Wal-Mart encourage innovation in operations whereby profit need not be compromised by sustainability policies. Through online platforms, the company encourages debates and forums whereby eco-friendly solutions to operations challenges are discussed. Whichever strategy meets the minimal standards set is incorporated, benefiting the brands revenue, its image and the ecosystem. Though the theory has its advantages, it poses several risk factors.
The utilitarian approach considers the outcomes paying little attention to the actions taken to achieve the outcome. Individuals using this moral perspective will justify any actions taken in order to get certain positive results. Pharmaceutical companies, for instance, represent organizations that may influence decisions regarding medication based on general perceived outcome. Substandard drugs that are cheap and have some degree of promise may be licensed in order to improve the health of patients who could have suffered if the medication was not available. Policies that were initially established to save lives are neglected in order to benefit the many who can only afford generic versions or drugs. The implication of the decision making instrument in organization structures is that set policies in management can be altered should a channel outside the defined course of action present an opportunity for better desirable outcomes.
The utilitarian approach posses several challenges in management perspectives. The theory requires decision-making systems to be fully aware of the consequences of actions to be taken. The measure is necessary to evaluate benefits verses potential harm. Calculation of probability of outcomes is not accurate therefore; the theory encourages use of intuition, which exposes companies to many uncertainties. The theory requires decision makers to give values to projected outcomes. Take for instance a country’s legislation considering introduction of a new law that influences medical coverage for different income levels. Providing values to health benefits verses financial benefits will be difficult since measuring the value of one person’s life is not easy. Accurate analysis of implications of decisions cannot be fully considered before decisions are made therefore the theory’s application is flawed.
Social responsibility systems of companies cannot utilize the utilitarian theory as the primary moral decision making tool. Due to conflicts with justice perspectives, it would be irrational for companies to primarily base certain decisions on benefits analysis. Should the rights of a few be violated for greater good, the basic concept of social responsibility is debased. There is therefore need for managers to integrate the utilitarian theory with other moral perspectives in an effort to produce the best possible outcomes while utilizing means that do not discriminate the minority. The need for monitoring ethical concerns within a company cannot be overstated. Instruments such as ethics programs represent control measures used to evaluate an organization’s ability to adhere to set guidelines on morality.
The ethics program provides a practical means for companies to practice sound judgment in decision-making. Right and wrong is determined by the primary ethical theory adopted by the company. The paper shall incorporate the utilitarian theory as adopted by an organization. The paper has highlighted the risk factors associated by use of the utilitarian theory. The implications on a company’s corporate social responsibility framework indicate minimal restraints on methodologies adopted to achieve an expected desirable outcome. The ethics program can be designed with codes that stipulate how the staff ought to conduct operations. The focus of the ethics program should be in the means accepted and discouraged in an effort to limit weaknesses associated with the utilitarian approach. For the purpose of demonstration, a set of codes will be provided and their significance to corporate social responsibility highlighted.
Corporate social responsibility requires every stakeholder to play an active role in practicing the codes stipulated. The first code that complements corporate social responsibility requires all employees to utilize their knowledge to improve population living standards. The code directly places responsibility to every individual within an organization. The code ensures that strategies that abuse the rights of some individuals are not adopted even when they present desirable outcomes. The code is resourceful to manufacturing companies in an effort to create a balance between productivity and responsibility. Sustainable solutions are also encouraged by the code.
The second code of ethics is directed to each individual requiring them to unbiased in service delivery. Honesty is a value highlighted. The code expects employees to devote their knowledge and skills to the satisfaction of their target market. The measure is not only sustainable but it also produces customer loyalty to a brand. The implications of the code on corporate social responsibility signify adoption of policies that are aimed at researching customer trends and preferences in order to exceed their exceptions. Every individual integrates elements of the utilitarian perspective with principles binding duty to performance.
The third code in the ethics program is directed to the management body. The top-level decision makers determine the direction an organization takes. The leaders are charged with the responsibility of adopting a sustainable framework as a template for each project. The code implies that all strategies incorporated meet the minimal standards set in outcomes assessment in an effort to ensure that no decision approved by the company results to avoidable harm to its environment. The three codes highlighted in the ethics program provide a tool for formative evaluation in ethics perspective.
There is need for the company to conduct necessary assessments aimed at measuring the degree to which values and principles adopted are utilized. Formative evaluation signifies an assessment tool vital for analyzing strategies as they are implemented, enabling the management to apply necessary changes as the projects are ongoing. Once the code of ethics is applied in the company, its implications on corporate social responsibility dynamics can be monitored immediately. The implementation process involves staff supervision assessing the attitudes of employees towards policies introduced. Communication channels can also facilitate down to top relay of information to facilitate effective feedback mechanisms whereby employees take active participation in incorporation or amendment of policies.

Conclusion
Ethics perspectives play a crucial role in decision-making systems within organization. The need for developing an established guideline for what an organization considers right and wrong cannot be overstated. Since corporate social responsibility outlines a moral compass that is to be utilized to ensure that operations in a company are sustainable, it is necessary for ethical theories to be considered in structuring of policies. The utilitarian approach is effective for companies with global markets, as strategies are based on their perceived benefits over minimal harm. The theory requires management bodies to incorporate an organization culture that facilitates principles highlighting the need for prioritizing outcomes with most benefits and minimal harm.
The utilitarian theory in business perspectives however, has its challenges. Competitive markets that require aggressive campaigns force organizations to adopt strategies with questionable morality. Justification of actions in the utilitarian approach is facilitated by the possibility of significant benefits that may result from their implementation. The basic requirement for social responsibility in business is at risk should the utilitarian approach be used as the primary moral compass in decision-making. Perspectives that consider the means utilized to achieve an outcome have to be integrated with the utilitarian system in an effort to ensure that the basic rights of certain players of the economy are not violated.
Ethics programs present possible solutions to the challenges in decision-making structures. The ethics programs take into consideration the various stages of decision-making processes and ensure that bias in each stage is avoided. For companies to adopt sound principles in management operations, sustainable solutions have to be the main style of administration. The evaluation tools provided by the ethics program should be utilized to analyze the degree to which employees adopt required values and changes can be made where necessary.

CHAPTER 5 WRITING STYLES
Writing styles simply refer to formatting techniques applied on documents to give them a professional look. The writing styles are useful as they give a reader an excellent reading experience where they can distinguish between sections of a paper. The readers will also be able identify the sources of information provided in the essay. Please note that writing styles have to be followed to the letter to avoid fines from customers. There are four major writing styles that we will be using APA, MLA, HAVARD & TURABIAN. The most common ones are apa and mla.
Before we go into the details, after you complete a paper do the following standard formatting on the Microsoft word document as soon as you are done with spell check.
2. Upload the document to grammarly.com and check for plagiarism. Copy the essay and paste on grammarly.com. Login Details-Correct grammatical errors until you get an 80% result on grammar. If plagiarism is detected, edit content highlighted until the paper has zero plagiarism. Only move to the next section once the paper is declared plagiarism free.
3. Set margins on 1 inch for top, left right and bottom
4. Go to Microsoft word [page layout tab>margins>normal setting (1nch all through)]
5. Enable double spacing for the whole document,
6. Select all essay, then right click and select paragraph option. In the line spacing select double and click o.k
7. 0.5 indent for paragraphs
8. Select all the paragraphs in the essay. In the indents and spacing box select 0.5 inch indent left, 0 inch indent right. In the special section, select first line.
9. .
10. Click office button>prepare>properties>leave all document properties such as author blank
11. Ensure that the essay body and reference list is aligned to the left
12. Rename the word document and use document name provided in the instructions table
13. You have to follow the citation style requested by the customer ( APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard or other). Note that sources are listed alphabetically with respect to the last names of the sources. Use hanging indents for the list of references, works cited or bibliography as shown below.
[Select the whole list then right click and select paragraph option. In the indents and spacing box select hanging In the special section].
Writing Style Link
MLA Style- https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/

Sample paper-
APA Style- https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Sample paper-
HAVARD Style-
Sample paper-
TURABIAN Style-
Sample paper-

For practice you can submit trial essays to Victor Ogega for editing. You will be required to sign up the service is FREE. The admin members in the forum asses your essays and point out strengths and weaknesses in your writing. Note that you cannot publish essays that will be submitted to customers in the forum, since it is a breach of terms and conditions.
Important writing styles to note

APA SAMPLE
MLA SAMPLE
HAVARD SAMPLE
TURABIAN SAMPLE
Example
This paper contains its instructions and the answer to show you how the writer approached the questions
Topic:
Poetry – Rita Dove
Type of paper:
report
Discipline:
English and Literature
Format or citation style:
MLA
2 pages
Paper instructions:
Short biography of Rita Dove the poet. About a page. Then a discussion about her 3 of her poems titles “Adolescence 1”. Adolescence 2″, and “Adolescence 3”
the professor says to make it fun. No need to look up information (except for the bio part).

Answer
Student’s name
Instructor’s name
Course name
Date
Rita Dove the poet
Born in the year 1952, Rita Dove comes from Akron, Ohio (Schwartz 164). Ms. Dove as one among the America Presidential Scholar top one hundred high school graduates of the year 1970 also attained her B.A. “summa cum laude” at the Miami University of Ohio in the year 1973. In 1977, Rita enrolled in the University of Iowa where she received her Master of Fine Arts and in 1975 gained a Fulbright scholarship to study in Germany’s Universität Tübingen (Schwartz 164). Ms. Dove is a renowned poet with a diverse catalogue of works under her name. Some of her poems include the yellow house on the corner, museum, Thomas and Beulah, selected poems and the Adolescence trilogy. Rita also is the author of the “Fifth Sunday”: a short stories book, the book “Through the Ivory Gate” and “The Poet’s World” essays (Mullen 234). Rita presently is stationed at the University of Virginia where she is the chairperson of Commonwealth Professor of English. Married to husband and fellow writer Fred Viebahn, Rita and her husband have a daughter named Aviva Dove Viebahn (Sastri 90).
Rita is a revered part of the arts society. She is an affiliate of the American Academy of Arts and Science, the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the American Philosophical Society (Schwartz 167). During the New Year’s celebration for the 1999/2000 millennium, Rita accompanied by John William’s orchestra performed live the poem “Unfinished Journey” from Spielberg’s documentary at the Lincoln Memorial (Schwartz 171). Rita wrote for two years from 2000 a weekly column for the Washington post named “Poet’s Choice” while also serving as the editor of “The Best American Poetry 2000” (Schwartz 169). In 2009, W.W. Norton & Co published her newest poetry collection under the title “Sonata Mulattica” with another collection released in 2011 under the name “The Penguin Anthology of 20th-Century American Poetry.” Rita is the recipient of various literary and academic awards including the Pulitzer Price in Poetry (Sastri 90).
Rita’s “Adolescence” poem is a trilogy divided into the sections “Adolescence I”, “Adolescence II” and “Adolescence III” all of which depict the growing up of a woman. Adolescence I introduce the reader to three young girls conversing in whispers behind their grandmother’s porch. The poem is a narration of Linda’s experience with a boy as she shares her experience with the other two girls. The poem filled with imagery presents Linda’s encounter in a vivid form in a way to texturize the words so that they show the emotion and amazement of the moment as the young girls discover their opposite sex.
In “Adolescence II”, the narrator has now reached puberty, and her body has started to grow into the woman form. The poem presents a fearful narrator who waits in a bathroom aware of the coming encounter. Later three men walk into the bathroom and take turns having sex with her. One of the men sadistically interrogates her of whether she feels “it” and when she fails to respond the other laugh at her. The poet uses imagery presented in a contrived language as opposed to using precise language in a way showing the poet’s desire to camouflage this explicit reality for young women.
The final part “Adolescence III” talks about the narrator’s juvenility and her hopes for the perfect romantic experience. After the disappearance of the speaker’s father, the narrator chooses not to recent her situation but rather to relinquish herself to a virtual world that she go to during her daydreams. This symbolism of a perfect world used in the poem shows how the narrator makes the best of her situation by daydreaming into a safe place where she envisions a knight in shining armor to be the solution to all her problems.

Work Cited
Schwartz, Claire. “An Interview With Rita Dove.” Virginia Quarterly Review 92.1 (2016): 164- 171.
Sastri, Reena. “Rita Dove’s Poetic Expeditions.” Twentieth Century Literature 1 (2012): 90.
Mullen, Harryette. “Rita Dove’s Adolescence II And Hully Gully.” The Explicator 3 (2012): 234.

TEST
Do you support or oppose death penalty? Develop an argumentative essay of 2 pages (550 words) and support your stand. The paper should be in APA style.