Chapter 9 and 10
3. How did the market economy and westward expansion intensify the institution of slavery?
The market economy and westward expansion intensified the institution of slavery through the cotton gin. At this time the rise of the cotton economy as a major driver to the growth and expansion of the American economy called for more workers in the cotton plantation and as such slavery become the source of the work force in the plantations. Salves could provide cheap labor and therefore were the most viable group to work in the cotton plantations since they could be acquired with ease as most of the western powers had also begun to colonize Africa where most slaves were readily available.
5. What role did immigrants play in the new market society?
During the 1840’s and the 1850’s American cities such as the New York witnessed an influx of immigrants from countries such as Germany and Ireland. Some o the immigrants had technical skills, and as such, they could be work technicians in the newly established factories. However, immigrants were blamed for social upheavals such as crime, corruption, and abuse of alcohol and the undercutting of wages.
8. How did the market revolution change women’s work and the family roles
Over the years women had been discriminated against and were expected to limit themselves to the house chores and giving birth. However, the rise of a new market economy led to the emergence of a new class of women who championed the rights of the women. Through feministic movements, women begin to work as casual laborers in the factories. However, at first, women could not be given senior position jobs. Since women had also started to acquire formal and technical training in various fields, some companies began to employ women as managers and senior supervisors. The role of the women in the family changed, and woman could now engage in activities that were initially male-dominated. In a way, the market revolution transformed the manner in which the society viewed woman and as such women began to acquire new opportunities in different spheres of life.
2. How did Andrew Jackson represent the major developments of the era: westward movement, the market revolution and the expansion of democracy for some alongside the limits on it for other?
As the first president of the east portico to be sworn in, a new Jackson played a significant role in the westward movement where he initiated a policy that was meant to relocate the native Indians to the Mississippi River. In regards to market revolution, Jackson was leading in ensuring that the immigrants were included in the operations of various companies since they had technical skills that would be utilized to bolster the economic growth. He also vetoed a charter that was meant to diversify the America’s democracy, and despite the nullification battle, Jackson managed to triumph.
4. What were the components of the American system and how were they designed to promote the national economy under the guidance of the federal government.
The America system was based on three economic plans that were postulated by Hamilton. Hamilton’s ideas were also supported by Henry Clay. According to the discords outlined through the system, there was a need to build a strong economic role through the federal government. According to the proponent of the American system, the federal government should reach the people at the grassroots and identify their economic problems. All the states had to be governed by a federal government whereby the leaders of the federal government would work closely with the members of the public. The three economic pillars of the American system included the subsidized transport infrastructure, taxation of foreign goods and a new national bank (Foner 379). The national bank was to act as the financial institutions that could be used to fund projects initiated by the federal government. This was also the financial institution where the federal government would save its money. Transport network was most viable since it would enable ease movement of farm products to the market centers. The essence of taxing foreign goods was to give the government extra revenues and also promote local trade.
7. What were the major economic, humanitarian, political, and social arguments for and against Indian removal?
The removal of the Indians and the relocation to the Mississippi contained in the Indian removal act of 1830 is an issue that instigated major debates on whether it was politically or economically motivated. According to Andrew Jackson who championed the drafting the act, the white Americans needed more land and thought that the Indians were intruders who had claimed the land of the Americans. He white Americans argued that the Indians were not taking good use of the land and therefore the whites could make better use of the land. Therefore, the argument was that if the land is made more economically productive and viable, it would be a big boost to the growth and development of the American economy.
According to the Indians, Indian removal was motivated by white supremacy. The white Americans based on racism devalued the Indians, and therefore this was the reason they wanted them removed from their land despite having signed a treaty with the American government. The American therefore thought that the Indians needed to be colonized since they were retrogressive. The white Americans also saw Indians as a threat to the stability of America since they would bring more Indian immigrants and therefore their population would mean more poverty and a burden to the American government.
Eric, Foner, “Give Me Liberty: An American History”, Seagull, 2017.