Miranda (2010) indicated that the indigenous people in Europe and California had a culture of three genders and there were male, female and joya.

Articles Analysis

Key Points and Arguments
Miranda (2010) indicated that the indigenous people in Europe and California had a culture of three genders and there were male, female and joya. However, the missionaries and soldiers from Spain felt that joyas were causing unnecessary abuse to their bodies and hoped that the group, whom they considered accused would disappear as the missions grew. To ensure that the joya were able to disappear, it would happen by implanting the Catholic faith and other virtues strongly so that the glory of God would be of benefit to the ignorant people. The Spaniards were dedicated to destroying the third gender, and they were unsuccessful.
Simpsons (2014), talks about gender violence against the indigenous people as caused by the white colonial masters in the article. Indigenous women were the targets, despite how much they were strong, educated or how they worked and the system, such as in Canada did not care about these people. Gender violence is a political issue, but there is fear to talk about it openly as the indigenous youth would have hope on a better life, the indigenous men would ignore the issue as if it does not exist while the state would pretend that colonial gender violence is not a thing.
In the article, “But It’s Honoring!, Its Tradition,” Williams talks about how the defenders of Native America believe that the Native American culture should be honored and respected. To support the claim, different claims have been used such as indicating of the nobility, brevity and fierce nature of the native people. The way the native people are put in the image is a way of showing the respect they should have and their importance in the history of the United States. These people are nicknamed as the mascots, and the name has been used even in the sports world.
Connections between the Readings
The articles are connected in that they are talking about the history of a group of people. The issues that were faced by the people during that period and the fears associated with talking about the concerns. The issue of racialized Indians by William, for instance, was part of the Native Americans who played an essential role in the development of America. They were even given nicknames as a way of making them feel important, and the nicknames have also been used in sports. Simpson (2014), on the other hand, talks about the issues facing the indigenous women and the governments were paying a deaf ear yet they knew all that was happening such as rape of innocent people. The colonial masters have been taking advantage of the women as they are considered weak, and there is no person who pleads on their behalf. They are just left with pain and personal suffering after the rape and gender violence they are passed through with the indigenous men quit. Miranda talks about the extermination of an indigenous gender group known as the joyas. The missionaries from Spain felt that the group was not supposed to exist, but they failed in the extermination efforts.
How did the suffering of the indigenous group such as the joya, indigenous women and racialized Indians affect their daily lives?
Are the vices against the indigenous groups still practiced to present day?

Miranda, D. A. (2010). Extermination of the Joyas: Gendercide in Spanish California. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 16(1-2), 253-284.
Simpson, L. (2014). Not murdered & not missing: Rebelling against colonial gender violence [Blog post].
Willams D (n.d). “But Its Honoring, Its Tradition.” The Persistence of Racialized Indians Mascots and Confederate Culture in Sports. California State University, Chico.