Module 4 Assignment
Managerial performance and advancement are evaluated based on the traits that influence it Managerial efficiency. Efficiency in this context is defined as an attribute of behavior that influences efficiency through management activities (Feint, 2014). In a research by the Journal of Organizational Psychology, personality traits have been identified to be effective in the prediction of managerial success. The research, managers provided personality traits. The traits were measured against income and promotion rate as a form of managerial success. The results indicated that narrow personality traits increase the validity supervisor ratings as a form of managerial performance. This paper analyses the various aspects of leadership and how they are influenced by leadership traits and skills.
Personality traits such as the competence of managers influence the level of managerial performance (Toney, 2010). Managerial performance is directly linked to personal competence. Personal competence of managers is assessed based on the ability of the individual to realize individual objectives and achieve economic and social achievements.
Secondly, Organizational culture is a critical trait that influences managerial performance and advancement. Organizational culture is the set of beliefs, aspirations and behavior’s predominantly practiced within an organization that directly impact its performance (Ybema, 2017). Organizational culture is an important determinant of economic performance within an organization. Organizational culture in this context managerial culture contributes to the management styles and decisions that profoundly influence efficiency and effectiveness within an organization. Culture influences on managerial performance by assuring the focalization of a set of objectives and helps in the development of a high motivation for employees with the help of the management, It is through the organizational culture that managers can control structure and coordinates efforts of employees to initiate managerial.
When trying to identify traits and skills for managers, it is essential to consider the nature of the job. The nature of a job is not a simple reflections of what employees do. The nature of the job is the definition of the pattern of behavior expectations. The nature of the managerial job situation is the primary description of what the management of the organization requires.
The job situation is an analysis of the many elements of the job. It describes the summary of the task that the manager is expected to undertake and the environmental characteristics of the work they are expected to undertake. The nature of the managerial job dictates offers the manager to demonstrate their intuitive knowledge in the practical application of knowledge in the contexts of the environment in which the manager will operate (Feint, 2014). Evaluating employees to determine if they are fit to take up management responsibilities requires that one considers the managerial job situation. The job situation informs the roles that the manager is expected to undertake. The nature of the managerial job also highlights the important attitudes and the need for the ability to demonstrate behavior’s that lead to good management of resources and persons. Managerial job situation proves the level of organization and self-motivation (Toney, 2010). The job situation prompts the ability of the manager to take up higher-level challenges. The managerial job situation is essential determinants of the outstanding abilities of the manager to complete outstanding working traits and skills.
Fiedler’s LPC contingency model
Created by Fred Fiedler, the contingency model argues that leadership has no best style. Instead, the effectiveness of the leader is based different situation. It is therefore dependent on the leadership style and favourable conditions. According to Fiedler, identification of the leadership style is the primary step in the model. In his take, leadership style is fixed and can measure using a scale. Fiedler developed a preferred co-worker (LPC) scale (Linda, 2013). The scale requires that leaders think about the person they least enjoy working with. It, therefore, requires that one rates how they feel about those individuals. The scores evaluate whether one is a relationship-orientated or task-orientated leader (Goodson, 2014)
Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory
Various sources of stress affect leaders form being rational. Cognitive Resource. The cognitive and experienced leader can overcome the effects of stress. The theory asserts that experience as a critical factor in managing stress as a leader. Also, the theory identifies the effective leaders as those that practice intelligence even in the face of stressful situations. Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory supports the leader’s ability to be more efficient when their managerial style is premeditated and authoritarian. If leaders come to the average level, effective leadership will orient on consensus (Fred, 2013).
Critiques of Fiedler’s resource theory
Some qualifications apply in the Cognitive Resource Theory. The parameters such as the nature of intelligence. Fiedler uses are not precise. Scholars have established that there are several bits of intelligence. Intelligence could involve emotions or ability to socialize. In addition to this critic, stress could also be both positive and negative stress. Each with varying effects on different individuals. Leaders may be influential in a familiar setting but be challenged in a different environment. On the other hand, some leaders thrive in a challenge.
Situational leadership theory draws its main views from Fiedler’s LPC, a contingency model. Under this model, leadership does not depend on single leadership style. No single style of leadership is considered the best. For Hershey and Blanchard, job descriptions vary (Goodson, 2014). Therefore, each task requires a particular leadership style. Good leaders are must, therefore, adapt leadership to the set objectives. Under this theory, the major factors that make leaders successful are responsibility and experience. Hersey and Blanchard’s form of leadership style is important in creating a successful leaders situation. However, the maturity characteristic of the individuals being led is critical. Hence, leadership techniques extend to the leadership style and the level of maturity of the group.
The leadership skills of planning are applied in situations where tasks are the long-term project that requires guidelines. Planning is instrumental where the project requires management to accomplish a given tasks should be accomplished within specified time periods that require resources. Planning is applied where the milestones are stated. Planning comes in to offer a guideline of the tasks that are to be completed
Clarifying is required in situations where roles overlap. Roles may overlap when teams there are no clearly defined role and majority of the team assume role belonging to another individual. It is also required where leadership vacuums develop as a result of failing to embrace roles. It is important that in situations that leave people guessing on what is required, that the leader clarifies what ought to be done.
Monitoring is a skill that is applied when counterchecking projects against the set management objectives. It requires continued assessment of a situation maintains an accurate understanding. It involves maintaining awareness of the situation and constantly sharing facts with the entire group. Monitoring is a continuous process because situations are dynamic (Toney, 2010). It can also be applied in situations where workload and additional work have been delegated to a group. Monitoring requires solving problems with the employees to foster follow up approach to problem-solving. Through the already developed action plans, employees can review processes to identify improvements.
Situational Leadership theory is useful in helping managers become efficient. The theory is based on two import pillars. The maturity of employees and leadership style. Whereas the traits and skills leaders are critical in performance, the importance of the contribution of subjects cannot be underestimated. Hersey’s leadership styles stem puts into consideration the aspect of employees in one’s performance as a leader. The understanding one’s subject is an important factor that informs the leadership style and the skills and competency one must apply. As Hersey states, leadership style manifests in the behavior as to a relationship with the group. Depending on the people being led, leaders can select and adjust various leadership techniques to suit the needs of the organization (Goodson, 2014).
This theory is unique in the sense that it attempts to convince the employees through offering both social and emotional support to the individual employees. The leader, therefore, leads to empathy. It also provide s for two-way communication between the leader and the one being led. Any theory that allows a participatory behavior of a leader support the idea that leader should involve subjects in decision making. Though criticism highlights the theory’s leadership style, which emphasizes on delegation, it is important to note that delegation is present in all another form of leadership. It, therefore, does not make Hersey’s model any different. The theory only emphasizes that the one in charge should monitor the delegated tasks.
Feint, M. C. (2014). Managerial performance: a contingency study: a dissertation submitted for the degree of Bachelor of Commerce (Honors) at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Fred E. Fiedler and Linda Mahar. A Field Experiment Validating Contingency Model Leadership Training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1979, 64, 247-254. (2013). Group & Organization Studies, 5(1), 123-123.
Goodson, J. R., Mcgee, G. W., & Cashman, J. F. (2014). Situational Leadership Theory. Group & Organization Studies, 14(4), 446-461.
Toney, F. (2010). A Leadership Methodology: Actions, Traits, and Skills that Result in Goal Achievement. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(2), 107-127.
Ybema, S., Yanow, D., & Sabelis, I. (2017). Organizational culture. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub.