Looking at John behavior from phenomenological perspective, the application of psychodynamic technique aims so much at understanding the behavior of John and analyzing the symptoms. Application of this technique also helps remind John that the past might repeat itself. Furthermore, phenomenological approach apply attachment theory in its trial of understanding Johns behavior, by using this theory, empirically based techniques and neurobiological methods are used to identifies the issues and problems faced by John. It also helps in healing of the unconscious processes of biological and psychological in the brain. Moreover, it promotes the development of the capacities in the higher level. These capacities consist of recognition and reflection of what is happening in Johns mind. This enables the provision of healing.
In addition to that, phenomenological approach applies cognitive behavioral technique to recognize the feelings and behaviors of John and thereby improve those feelings and handle the worries exhibited by John. In this case therefore, John will be able to connect his thoughts and feelings so that he can predict the next action to take. Identifying and understanding also self defeating patterns will enable john to evaluate the reasons why some things are happening and not happening in some other.
Phenomenological approach also offers a systematic technique in which it will enable one to understand John’s problems in a contextual perspective. This means, John’s family, relationships and work settings should be understood. Understanding the family background will help in understanding Johns interactions among his members and systems. Other techniques aimed at inducing self expression and provide safest places to express ones feelings and secrets connected to such kind of behaviors.
In general, a phenomenological technique provides the most effective way of finding therapy to people and determining their responses and getting feedback. Though different results are realized, good and reliable findings comes up because of some chemistry involving a subtle factors that most therapists found has to do with personalities and offer the ability for someone who want to talk to confide.
John’s problem can be also viewed from a different angle. The way in which he perceives acts or even believe in some things can be analyzed. This can be best achieved by studying his personal traits in which it can best describe its behaviors. According to one of the renowned psychologist Carl Jung and the Myers Briggs, a person can either be introvert who likes and keeps everything to himself and extrovert likes telling and showing to the world what he exhibits.
For introverts, it will help to analyze John behavior and offer help there from. Introverts basically are shy, have distaste for social functions and value their privacy more than anything else. Extrovert on the other hand enjoy all kinds of social activities and more so, they don’t mind their privacy being invaded since they don’t like being alone. Knowing this with regards to John will aid a lot in categorizing him and getting the right solution for his problem.
He also continued stating that for one to successfully analyze the behavior of a person, techniques applied are sensing which enables one to see everything in a simple way yet realistic and down to earth for people and intuition, this enables one to get the information having solid aspects of reality. Application of intuition shows an artistic way and rather Philosophical. Understanding this will help to know the category in which John fits and solution provided.
The same psychologists explained that, people usually make decision based on their decision and others do so based on their feelings. Those making decision based on their thoughts are best in solving the problems and thus very effective when used for physical problems and thus desired to deal with more complex problems. For people basing on their feelings, they are only effective when dealing with people since it’s a kind of intuition.
Judging and perceptions was also stated by the same psychologist. He aimed at analyzing people’s ways of coming to conclusions. Judging tends to act like the Feud’s retentive types. In judging, peoples tend to be hard working and time keepers while perceptions, people tends to do what they like at their own will. In essence, a person with high perceptions fails to do things. This is an important factor since it will help to know how John’s problems will be solved.
Apart from Psychologists Carl Jung and Myers Briggs, Hans Eysenck tried also to explain the different traits exhibited by human beings and their translations. He did this by giving a list of adjectives to a lot of people and used a special statistical factor analysis to come up with the trait dimensions that has more weight than others. By this, he came up with a Questionnaire for personality check.
In his dimensions, the questionnaire pointed out the extroverts and introverts by looking at how one answers the questions by using I, shows an introvert. In addition to that, he introduced a neuroticism technique which pointed out the feelings of a person. By scoring high on the questions given out about feelings, it shows that one is emotional and nervous. It also predicted that a person scoring high and though not neurocratic, means one has a high tendency of being affected by emotions. This knowledge helps one to evaluate john’s behavior and identifying the category he belongs so that a right approach to his problem can be established.
Another dimension developed by Hans Eysenck meant to identify the likely of people to be faced by problems of reality. He named this technique a psychoticism. In this technique, it helps identify and understand people suffering from such. A person who exhibits hallucinations has beliefs about being watched from creatures and beings on the planet or above it. The scores in psychotism shows the depth a person is willing to take. Middle or average score points out that a person is a bit eccentric. Low scores on the other hand points out that a person is normal.
In an attempt again to solve John’s problems, biological theory which analyses the genetics also proves to be of great significance. The same psychologist Eysenck states that, the behavior of an individual displayed by that person is likely to be as a source of heredity. Being hereditary, the main location is the central nervous system. He continues to explain that the information from ones surroundings is usually transmitted by the organ which senses this information. It is then transferred to the brain via the neutral pathways. At the brain, cortical processes occur and in turn, it facilitates the responses of cognitive ones responses.
Throughout his work, Eysenck maintained that people exhibiting introvetory traits relatively have high strong inhibitory processes. This implies that the nervous system is strong and it enables this kind of people to tolerate the high sense of stimulation. To achieve this, the brain slower, the processes of stimulation thus creating a desire for strong stimulation sensing. Introverts on the other hand exhibit excitory stimuli which are strong and their inhibitory stimuli are weak. This implies that their brains are more reactive and can tolerate a bit of stimulations.
As the developments gets on, Eysenck modified the theory of inhibition to arousal theory which aims at identifying the psychological stimuli which are likely to affects both the introverts and extroverts. This theory compares the introverts and extroverts behaviors. This is done by tracing the parts of an activating system. Ability to apply this will help a lot since John will be perfectly placed in the category he belongs. It helps so much in understanding him and discovering the origin of his traits.
Other psychologist presumes that the behaviors exhibited by individuals have temperamental origin. The theories developed agrees with the temperament and aims at explains that why individuals differ in their traits. It also noted that the environment have much impacts in development of a human being. Closer evaluation of John’s environment in which he grew up will help a lot in identifying if his behavior is as a result of the environment.
In study of quantitative of behavioral genetics, it is quite evident that apart from genes, environment plays a role in developing ones behavior. Genetics contribute to phenotypic variance of traits and remaining variances exhibited to an individual can be attributed to the environment. These combinations of variances enhance the familiar variances. Understanding this well will help understand Johns family background.
The non shared variances arising from either genetic variances or environmental influences how members of the same family members differ from each other. The sources of these non shared variances might be from non systematic factors like illness or accidents. Other factors are extra familial relationships. These effects like illness might be discovered to be what John might be suffering from.
Many psychologists aimed at bringing into table a lot of methods for solving issues connected to human lives. A prominent psychologist Rollo May contribute much. His doctoral thesis played a significant role in developing some solutions to some psychotherapy issues. In his work, he made a distinction between the neurotic and existential anxiety. His work was highly influenced and motivated by humanistic and psychoanalytic approaches.
Erikson also played a major role in development of the ways in understanding a human being. He developed one of the influential theories which can be termed as theory of personality psychology. He developed an ego identity theory which formed a conscious sense in social interaction. In his theory, he explained in stages about a growth of a child from the time it is conceived up to when one dies. The stage coherently shows what to expect of a person at a different stages in life. Failure of a person to show the characteristics supposed at a certain level should be investigated. In john’s situation, the stages he followed should thoroughly be analyzed and solution provided there from.
Ivan Pavlov is also great psychologists who helped in developing some theories. His example was using a dog to come up with his conclusions. He noticed a dog salivates whenever an assistant entered the room. The reflexive responses of a dog were measured in terms of saliva poured out in the salivation act. In his conclusion drawn from observations of the dog, he noticed that several repetitive stimulations together with familiar sounds made repetitively stimulates the dog. This kind of response is known as conditioned response. Applying this conclusion to Johns situation, His depression might be as a result of not staying with anybody, being an introvert and creating room for a lot of thinking which in turn leads to depression.
The theories of phenomenological theories have ability and strengths in solving ones problems when used accordingly. Psychodynamic in solving the problems, it tends to solve the problem by dealing with the root cause. This enables one to think in a broader area which can assure one that the problem at hand is being solved. Due to this fact, this approach has proved to be good for application in solving more general distress and those which relates to persons privacy.
The cognitive behavioral technique has also proved to be effective and efficient in its application. The use of Cognitive behavioral technique fosters for a more independent ability and strength applied to the client. By this fact, it is fully reliable and can produce good results and thus no need to think of other approaches like psychodynamic technique. Moreover, this theory isn’t continuous for a long time like some techniques applied. Thus it is time saving. It also has a wider solution to all categories of all likely issues to be faced. Thus can have solutions for any emerging issues.
Though all the theories have proved to be of much help, it has also been pointed out that there are some limitations they exhibit. Psychodynamic approach uses a lot of assumptions in providing for its techniques. It assumes that the behaviors of a person or ones feelings are highly affected by the unconscious motives exhibited by that individual. Furthermore, it assumes that any feelings and behavior of all the adult human beings can only be rooted into childhood times. It doesn’t take into account the impacts of environment and any other factors. Moreover, psychodynamic approach assumes that an individual’s behavior is highly motivated by instinctual drives which include the sex drive and the life instinct. In addition to that, it assumes that the personality is shaped as it is modified by different conflicts during ones childhood.
Attachment theory also faces some criticism as it only states that parents exhibiting some kind of traits will pass on the same to their children. In reality, children are not being shaped by their parents but the peers. Harris, (1998). The role of parents in this case is to transfer the genetics to their children. Moreover, Bowlby points out that the attachment theory is only based on the occurrence which takes place during the momentary separations rather than the occurrence during the non stressful periods.
From this perspective, the attachment theory should provide for observation of the way the mother and the child interact during this periods. Limitation of this theory also is limited to the primary attachment figure. This is not the case since children are not always necessarily attached to their mothers. Furthermore, this models view the mother as the primary figure for that matter. The father can also be a primary figure in which a theory doesn’t take into account.
Though Cognitive Behavioral theory has been proved to be effective, it has some limitations which include commitment of an individual in order to benefit from it. In this case also, if John is not very cooperative in helping the therapist solve the problem, it will be of no help. In addition, this theory requires regular attendance by john so that he can be monitored. This proves to be time consuming.
This technique can also involve confrontations of one’s emotions and anxieties. This brings one emotion to unstable emotions. Furthermore it only addresses the present issues and do not provide for solutions to other prevailing problems. It also focuses on one’s ability and strengths to change their feelings and behaviors and do not addresses the significant problems faced by the families.
The interpersonal therapy is not also left behind since it has some critics also. It lacks clear statement which causes concern to the practitioners and thus faces the difficulty in resolving the emerging challenges. The technique is very simple; however, it obscures the sophistication of the tasks which is required in the work domain. This can then lead to inadequate guidance again to the practitioners. Moreover, the training undertaken for one to become a practitioner is complex yet unsatisfactory. This has proved ineffective.
In conclusion, efficient application of the techniques stated above will lead to solving of Johns problem. And the skilled personnel should only attend to John so that they will help him. The steps followed should be identification if John is introvert or extrovert. This will then enable the proper and correct ways of solving the problems and way of approaching him. He should be made aware of what is going on so that he can cooperate and make the exercise successful.