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Data collection is a significant aspect in the research process and development of report. Criminal justice involves various areas of interest and can cut across corrections, juvenile justice and victimology. Data types collected may be either qualitative or quantitative. Under the Corrections setting qualitative data may be aspects to do with natural behavior, artifacts that capture social life and individual attitudes. Quantitative data will be issues to do with the criminal record data, probation services and municipal registry (Tonry, 2017). . For the juvenile justice system, quantitative data will address issues to do with demographics, referrals and detentions. Qualitative data may be found if researchers make good use informant interviews, focus groups and community observations (Lipsey et al.,2017)
Qualitative data for victomology can be got through characteristics of incident, impact of the incident and experiences with the support services. Qualitative data can be got by establishing the number of attacks, demographics and community. A survey question may be confusing when there is no a perfect response to the subject matter (Pickett et al., 2018). For instance, a question may be framed in a format like this, Tell me if you would vote for or against a candidate supporting reduction of federal spending on education or welfare? Such a question is an ambiguous one and it confuses the respondents. One is not sure to respond basing their argument on welfare or education. It is good to provide clear questions for concise response.
Pie charts offer a good illustration of data that could still be displayed in a table. Pie charts can be used to show percentages or proportional data (Biyani et al., 2017). They are commonly used to display data for various categories. Bar chart is useful when comparing different sets of data like the average or median for set of student marks in a class (Serra & Bork, 2016). Line graphs are best used to visualize value of something over time. For instance it can be used to display the daily temperature of a given area which can be recorded for certain period of time. Data summarized in a table can be presented in the line graph.
Biyani, N., Righetto, R. D., McLeod, R., Caujolle-Bert, D., Castano-Diez, D., Goldie, K. N., &
Huerta-Cepas, J., Serra, F., & Bork, P. (2016). ETE 3: reconstruction, analysis, and visualization of phylogenomic data. Molecular biology and evolution, 33(6), 1635-1638.
Lipsey, M. W., Conly, C. H., Chapman, G., & Bilchik, S. (2017). Juvenile Justice System Improvement: Implementing an Evidence-based Decision-making Platform. Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, Georgetown University.
Pickett, J., Cullen, F., Bushway, S. D., Chiricos, T., & Alpert, G. (2018). The Response Rate Test: Nonresponse Bias and the Future of Survey Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Sekharan, S. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,389,777. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Sorenson, S. B., & Spear, D. (2018). New data on intimate partner violence and intimate relationships: Implications for gun laws and federal data collection. Preventive medicine.
Stahlberg, H. (2017). Focus: The interface between data collection and data processing in cryo-EM. Journal of structural biology, 198(2), 124-133.
Tonry, M. (Ed.). (2017). Crime and Justice, Volume 46: Reinventing American Criminal Justice (Vol. 46). University of Chicago Press.