According to Burgelman and Doz (1997), Lean design is a step by step process that involves a plan to minimizing non-value-added tasks and improving the work of production in production Company.

Lean Integration Design And Production
YourFirstName YourLastName
University title

Contents
Introduction. 2
Design problem.. 2
Lean design. 5
Lean Planning using. 6
Last planner method. 10
Planning implementation. 11
Benefits of planning. 12
Design Application Technology. 13
Design method effectiveness. 14
Quality management tools. 15
Success factors. 16
Waste Elimination. 19
Design Environment & 5s. 20
Conclusion. 20
References. 22

Introduction

According to Burgelman and Doz (1997), Lean design is a step by step process that involves a plan to minimizing non-value-added tasks and improving the work of production in production Company. Design is the major part of the whole process in a production company since a good design will yield good results as customer satisfaction and quality products. As a designer, I will have to come up with general methodologies that can help me to design while keeping the costs as low as possible. The use of lean design approach will help me to analyze and suggest the likely improvements to enhance on the productions. Projects designed using lean approach are easier to manage and are safer.
Scenario
A company is a small size architectural office of four to six people depending on a year. The employees come from two different disciplines; architectural technologists and architects. There are one senior architect and three to five young professionals/ students. Except senior architect, the team members are interns. The office mainly concentrates on competitions and the highest priority is given to the real projects from various clients. The office has a long history of 27 years and it has been successful in office buildings, housing, and educational institutions designs. As well as real projects, the team participates in many international and national competitions. In addition, the company works closely with structural and M&E (mechanical and electrical) engineers.
After working as an intern in the company, I made some observations has been made on the improvement of specific areas. The list of possible improvement areas is listed below:
The working group which do not have time schedule on the running projects except the deadlines.
There are sometimes few projects running at the same time but nobody is responsible for distributing the workload and making the schedule.
There is great communication between senior designer and employees but there is a lack of group discussions.
Even though the office is small, sometimes there is different information flow in different rooms.
When working on the same project the drawing measurements do not match when combined.
The senior designer is not computer literate and the design team is interrupted by sending his e-mails and doing various updates.
Interns come and go every half a year, and it is hard to implement a standardized approach of the team.
Design of the project keeps changing to the last day, not leaving ‘room’ to finish the project in high quality.
Communication between structural, M&E and architectural offices is held, but not on the regular basis. Therefore the work done by structural engineers might be worthless since the design of the building is changed.
Employee creativity is unused
The workload at the end of the project is usually extreme, meaning that job runners have to work overtime in the evenings and weekends.
Partially implemented BIM
The design office has a regular client, and the improvements could be proposed in the future projects.
Design problem
To handle production design problems, determination and implementation of the lean ideal is carried out by identifying the source of wastes and reducing the same as classified under lean. Can also be done by Examining general perceptions of the construction and design industry with the lean principles of practices. This can do trough Examining the relationship between lean construction and performance improvement programs in construction organizations and also by Analyzing the characteristics of successful performance improvement programs then developing a model that identify three critical elements as Time spent and Improvement perspective and goals.
The lean ideal is to provide a custom product exactly fit for purpose and delivered instantly with no waste to the subsequent actions that may be necessary in order for projects to pursue that ideal. The ability of individuals and organizations to follow this process will vary with position and circumstances to the extent possible. The principles to be implemented on the project include Selecting of suppliers who are willing to adopt lean project delivery and to structure the project organization to allow money to move in pursuit of the best project-level returns. Additional to this, it define and align project scope, budget, and schedule, Explore adaptation and development of methods to Make design decisions with clear alternatives against stated criteria. Practicing production control in accordance to lean principles is done by building quality and safety into projects and Implementing the JIT and multi-organizational processes after site demand. Evaluations and planning on the process that transform materials is also an important principle.
Design management suffers many problems that need to be solved. And a s a result, construction industry is overwhelmed by delay leading to cost and time overrun. Problems associated with management should be understood and efforts need to be directed toward developing solutions and more efficient methods of operation. Presence of wastes in Toyota production industry has affected the performance negatively. And the need to find Ways to rectify this have to be undertaken. Waste prevention in production is essential because they enable some operational costs be prevented resulting to conditions of implement decentralized control (Fujimoto, 1999).
Things that do not increase the product value is a waste. Wastes are either incurred by equipment or personnel and are more difficult to be measured because the optimal efficiency is not always known. Activities leading to losses can be Value adding activities which convert materials and information in the search to meet client’s requirements or Non-value adding activities which include resources like time and consume space without adding value to the product (Karthi & Devadasan & Murugesh 2011). Waste in Toyota construction industry has been the subject of several projects in recent years.Current development seems to point too much on wastes that are only one of the resources involved in the design process.
Reports on production wastes impacts show that these wastes can be reduced by following the certain plan set designs about prevention. Wastes can be Production that had been carried out as Overproduction of a quantity greater than required or earlier than necessary causing waste of materials as well as working hours and equipment usage (Magee, 2007). Exchange and execution of simple tasks by an overqualified worker by using sophisticated instead of simple one also leading to wastes. Waiting time caused by lack of synchronization and leveling of material flows and pace of work by different groups. Equipment is also another cause of waste.
This might be caused by inadequate equipment and ineffective work methods. Studies has summarized lean thinking into eleven principles that reduce the share of non-value adding activities and results in Increase of output value through systematic consideration of customer requirements and Reducing variability and time cycle by minimizing the number of steps, parts and linkages to Increase output flexibility (Ofori & Lean, n.d.). To Increase process transparency, company need to focus control on the complete process aimed at Build continuous improvement into the process in production. Lean designing is using the same principles as lean production to reduce waste and increase the productivity and effectiveness of construction work (Oosterwal 2010).
However, the most important determinants of production designs are supposed to be a workflow reliability and labor flow. Though lean designing has changed the traditional view of the project as transformation and embraced the concept of flow and value generation.Also It has similarly shared the same objectives of lean production. Lean construction is composed of: Concurrent Engineering which is described as the parallel execution of various tasks by multidisciplinary teams with the goal of obtaining most favorable products concerning productivity (Oosterwal, 2010). To do these, scheduling could be recovered by using network analysis (CPM and PERT).One of the Most important planning parameters for scheduling concurrent activities are lead time, quantity, and risk under ambiguity. This method is focusing on the team efforts including communication and information sharing as the key for discovering new ideas to the organization. The important planning parameters for scheduling concurrent activities are lead time, quantity, and risk under ambiguity. This method is focusing on the team efforts including communication and information sharing as the key for discovering new ideas.

References
Burgelman, R., & Doz, Y. (1997). Complex strategic integration in the lean multibusines corporation. Fontainebleau, France: INSEAD.
Fujimoto, T. (1999). The evolution of a manufacturing system at Toyota. New York: Oxford University Press.
Karthi, S., Devadasan, S., & Murugesh, R. (2011). Integration of Lean Six‐Sigma with ISO 9001:2008 standard. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 309-331.
Magee, D. (2007). How Toyota became #1: Leadership lessons from the world’s greatest car company. New York: Portfolio.
Ofori, G., & Lean, C. (n.d.). Factors influencing development of construction enterprises in Singapore. Construction Management and Economics, 145-154.
Oosterwal, D. (2010). The lean machine how Harley-Davidson drove top-line growth and profitability with revolutionary lean product development. New York: American Management Association.
Plenert, G. (2007). Reinventing lean introducing lean management into the supply chain. Burlington, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Schmidt, J., & Lyle, D. (2010). Lean integration: An integration factory approach to business agility. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.
Sproull, R. (2009). The ultimate improvement cycle: Maximizing profits through the integration of lean, six sigma, and the theory of constraints. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Stenzel, J. (2007). Lean accounting: Best practices for sustainable integration. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS (AIA) (2007) Integrated project delivery: a guide, version 1, USA
Go to: www.aia.org/ipdg

Womack, D. Jones, D. Roos (1991). The Machine that Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production:
Newyork.print.
Koskela. L (1997). Lean production in construction: Balkema, Rotterdam, 1997.print.